When to plant tomatoes for seedlings in 2018
Good day everyone. We continue the tomato theme, and immediately recall that in the previous article, we talked about which ones are best for planting in a greenhouse or in the open ground, taking into account the climatic conditions for growing the crop.
I hope that the seeds are already selected and bought, or harvested from last autumn, which means that it is time to deal with the characteristics of planting these vegetables for seedlings. And this post is just dedicated to this pressing issue.
Today we will examine the issues of concern to all: the planting dates of this year, and the preparation of seeds, and the methods of sowing. So be attentive, and read slowly.
When to plant tomatoes on seedlings on the lunar calendar in 2018
In fact, tomato cultivation begins early enough, and it is very important to determine the exact date of planting.
Many gardeners and gardeners are guided by the lunar calendar, which is based on the growth phases of the moon. Such an assistant is considered to be quite successful in this business.However, do not forget about the region of vegetable cultivation and the characteristics of the selected variety, as well as give due attention to your experience.
And remember one golden rule, it is better to be a little late with tomato seedlings than to hurry, otherwise the seeds sown too soon will “toil”.
Now let's turn directly to the lunar calendar for 2018 and see what he recommends to us.
Favorable days of 2018:
- February is the 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 25, 26 and 28 numbers.
- March, 1, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 28
- April, 17, 18, 21, 22, 27, 28
- in May - 18, 19, 24, 25, 26
Adverse days of 2018:
- 2, 3, 9, 10, 15 February
- March 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16
- April 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16
- May 2, 3, 7, 8, 15
Once again, do not forget about the climatic conditions of cultivation, as in the Urals, Siberia and in the northern regions spring comes later, so the time for seedlings is better to devote in early April.
Varieties of early tomatoes are preferable to plant in the second half of February. But large tomatoes - in the third decade of February.
And since I am a resident of the Moscow region, I give the following recommendations on this issue:
- early open field tomatoes - early April;
- early tomatoes for planting in the ground under the film shelters - the second half of March;
- tall tomatoes for greenhouses - the end of March;
- low-growing tomatoes for greenhouses - early-mid-April;
- large tomatoes - the beginning of March.
If you do not trust the lunar calendar, you can easily and easily calculate the planting date for seedlings. And this is done as follows:
- To independently calculate the sowing period, be guided by the vegetation period. So, in early and hybrid varieties, vegetation is observed for 100 days. By this time, add the time it takes to shoot a sprout. This is about a week. Plus the term survival of seedlings, another three days. That is, the total segment is 110 days. Next, perform a countdown in reverse order - 110 days from the estimated day of harvest, this will be the date of sowing the seeds.
As you can see, nothing complicated, simple mathematics)) And we move on to the next question.
How to choose and prepare seeds for seedlings
Seed preparation is very important, because it depends on them the quality, and therefore the future harvest.
Purchased and domestic seeds require special preparation. This condition applies to the soil in which the tomato will be grown.
There are several ways to prepare seeds for sowing: dressing, soaking, germination.
But before I tell you about the features of seed preparation, I want to give a couple of tips on what to look for when buying and choosing varieties:
- Climatic conditions.
- Shelf life.
- The package must contain the name of the variety and the F1 symbol,
- Information about seed germination.
- Pay attention for planting in open ground or for a greenhouse intended tomatoes.
- Also, do not forget to watch the early or late varieties.
- Well, the appointment of vegetables (for salads, canned, etc.)
We now turn to the preparation of seeds for sowing.
- The first thing to do is to disinfect them, so you will destroy the pathogens. To do this, wrap the seeds in cheesecloth and dip them in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate (2.5 g per 1 tablespoon of water) for 20-30 minutes. Then rinse the seeds under running water and dry a little.
- When you complete the decontamination process, then I recommend them to germinate.This process accelerates the emergence of seedlings..Take a paper napkin, moisten it with water and fold it in half.At one end of the napkin, place the pickled tomato seeds, and cover with the other end.
- Place a napkin with seeds on a saucer or on a small plastic plate. Next, put all the saucer in the bag and put in a warm place (for example, near the battery). Moisten the napkin constantly so that the seeds do not dry out on it.
- Usually the seeds germinate on the 3-5th day. Select all seeds that have sunk by this time for sowing. It is not necessary to sow unsprouted seeds !!
Tip! Germinated seeds can be placed for a day in the fridge, a kind of hardening of seedlings will be obtained, which will further facilitate its acclimatization after diving and transplanting into the ground.
Next, you need to prepare the soil for seedlings.
- Soil can be purchased at a gardening shop. Choose any universal soil for growing seedlings of vegetables. Also, such a mixture can be “diluted” with garden soil. But the land from the street must be processed. In the room it must be made 3-5 days before sowing, so that she has time to warm up. And also spill the ground well with a pink solution of potassium permanganate and let it stand for another 1-2 days. Only then can it be mixed with the store substrate in equal shares.
And in the end you need to choose the capacity for seedlings.
Seeding boxes or individual containers can be used for sowing. Sowing seeds in each type of tank differs only in that the seedlings from the large container, when they reach a certain size, should be dived, and the shoots from the cups can be transplanted immediately into the open ground.
Only after carrying out all these manipulations, it is possible to move into the sowing of seeds.
How to sow tomatoes on seedlings at home
Well, we move on and proceed to the most interesting. Consider what are the options for planting tomatoes on seedlings at home.
Recommendations for proper planting seeds in the ground
1. If you have seeds that were previously germinated, then you need to transfer them to the soil very carefully.It is best to use tweezers.
2. Each seed must be placed vertically, directing the sprout up, and from above the seeds are carefully sprinkled with dry earth and not pressed.
3. Seedlings do not need to be watered, it is enough just to sprinkle the earth from the spray gun with warm water settled for 24 hours to compact the soil.
4.If you have swollen or dry seeds, any sowing method will do. You can use wooden boxes or general containers. Make prepared grooves using wooden sticks or a blunt knife. Just draw stripes on the soil, the depth of which is about 1 cm, and the distance between the lines is about 4 cm.
5. Place the tomato seeds in the prepared grooves at intervals of 2-2.5 cm.
Remember !! It is necessary to water the land before sowing seeds.
6. Sprinkle seeds with a layer of soil in 1 cm and slightly condense it, simply pressing down with your fingers.
7. It remains to cover the boxes with cellophane and put them in a warm place for 7-10 days.
8. When green shoots appear, remove the film immediately. Growing temperature should not be below 23 degrees.
Another great way to grow seedlings is sowing seeds in disposable plastic cups. Now we will analyze all stages in detail.
- We take a plastic cup and make a drainage hole in it. Then we pour drainage itself on the bottom (expanded clay, small pebbles or egg shells). We fill a glass with soil and pour it well with warm water.
- We make small holes in the ground (1-2 cm) and sow 2-3 seeds in them.
- Spray crops gently with a spray bottle. Capacity themselves cover film and put in a warm place.
Watering the seeds after sowing and until such time as the seedlings are stronger, you can only from a spray.
For good growth, seedlings need to be at least 12 hours a day. If you can not organize this, then get a luminescent lamp.
The next stage of seedling preparation is its dive, and this stage is obligatory if the seeds were sown in a common container.
Before diving seedlings surely pour abundantly. Next, remove the plant with a knife or a small metal spatula. Try to capture not only the plant itself, but also a lump of earth between the roots.
During a dive, you can pinch the central root by a third, this will stimulate the growth of the root system, and the plant itself will become more powerful.
Weak and damaged plants throw it out better. And choosing the strongest and strongest tomatoes, plant them in a separate container, one or two plants in each. If the pairing method is chosen, at the stage of formation of the fourth and fifth leaflets, it will be necessary to pinch a weaker tomato, and to tie the stems of both plants with a nylon thread.In this way it will turn out to grow stronger seedlings, which will give a bountiful harvest.
Remember that the containers with the pickled tomatoes do not need to be placed under too bright sunlight. Therefore, it is better to use artificial lighting first or arrange the seedlings on dimly lit window sills.
If the tomato seeds were initially planted in a separate container, then the picking stage can be skipped, but I advise you to do a picking of seedlings.
To do this, they need to thin out, leaving a strong plant (if several seeds have grown in one container). But do not pull the “extra” seedling out of the ground, but pinch it off just above the soil level.
If you have taken several varieties of tomatoes, then do not forget to stick their names on the cups, so you will not mix up the seedlings.
Next, you need constant care for our seedlings.
- Watering the seedlings must be separated, boiled or melt water, which is heated or kept near the heating devices. Water temperature for irrigation should be about 20 degrees.
- Fertilize seedlings need in the event that the appearance of the plants are sluggish, and the leaves drooping and yellowed. Fertilize pre-dilute fertilizer in water for irrigation.
- Before planting already in a permanent place, harden the seedlings. That is, 10-14 days before planting, open the windows in the room, and later take out the boxes for a few minutes on the balcony, and then leave the tomatoes outside, but do not forget to shade the plants from the sun.
- It is possible to plant seedlings in a greenhouse or on a bed when there are 6-7 true leaves on the plant, there are also first buds. And the height of more than 15 cm, the stem should be strong and have bright green foliage.
Video on how to sow tomatoes in twists
Well, after preparing the seedlings, we will have the final stage - to transplant the finished seedlings already in a permanent place of growth. But more on that later.
And now I want to share a very interesting way of sowing seeds. It is considered a win-win, and along with such methods as a snail, common or single seeding, it is sought-after and popular. It is called differently: in twists, in Moscow, promotion, in rolls, without land.
I really have never tried this method, but they say that this method is very successful. In general, see the plot, see for yourself.
Planting seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse
Well, now it's time to consider the features of planting seedlings in open ground or in the greenhouse, that is, directly to the place where tomatoes will grow and please us with their fruits.
So, landing is usually carried out in the late afternoon or in cloudy weather. And the earth at the depth of the roots should already warm up to 10-16 degrees. At lower soil temperature, the seedlings most likely will not survive, and if the soil cools down to 2 degrees, the plants will die.
Immediately before the landing itself, it is necessary to prepare the ground. I found the stages of soil preparation, I share with you
- sanding (carried out in the fall for heavy wet soil at the rate of 1 bucket of sand per 1 sq. m);
- liming (used to reduce the acidity of the soil, for this, in the autumn or spring digging, lime powder is applied to the soil at the rate of 0.5-0.8 kg per 1 square meter);
- disinfection (in spring, the soil is treated with hot (70-80⁰С) solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 1 l per 1 sq. m);
- organic fertilizer application (when digging up the soil, add humus or rotted compost at the rate of 3-7 kg per 1 sq. m);
- the application of mineral fertilizers is carried out at spring digging of the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm.
And now let's take a brief look at the moments of planting seedlings in open ground, and then turn in detail to the issue of transplanting to a greenhouse.
Immediately before disembarking, form the beds (width 100-120 cm, height 15-20 cm) and make holes at a distance of 35-45 cm in a row and 55-75 cm between the rows. If the seedling is in a peat tablet or cup, then simply dip it in the hole without removing it. From the other tanks, you need to carefully pull out the earthen ball with the plant.
1-1.5 hours before planting, the seedlings need to be shed properly so that during the transplant the earthen ball does not crumble and the roots are not damaged.
Seed seedlings in the wells vertically and fill with fertile soil to the cotyledon or the first pair of true leaves. Then press the ground thoroughly and pour. Now place the pegs (50-80 cm high) so that you can tie the plants to them around the 12th day.
After planting, the bushes of tomatoes do not water for a week.
The stages of planting seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse:
1. Soil preparation. It is best to remove the top layer of soil, and pour the renewed soil with copper sulphate (1 tbsp per bucket of water). Next, be sure to air the room. Then dig up the last year's beds with humus and close the greenhouse before planting tomatoes.
Fresh manure as fertilizer can not be used!
Also keep in mind that it is impossible to plant the tomatoes in the soil where the growth of the nightshade has been, namely tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, physalis, tomato seedlings, but after cucumbers and potatoes, on the contrary, it is necessary.
2. Landing. First, select the day, preferably overcast, and make sure that the soil is already well warmed. Next, pay attention to the planting depth: the root should be completely in the ground, but the growing point should not be closed - it is about 15 cm deep, and humus or other fertilizer should be put into the cavities.
If the plant has yellow leaves, then remove them. Soil the soil around the plant and sprinkle with primer. After transplanting, pour plenty of tomatoes under each bush. Then, during the week, do not water the plants, because otherwise all development will be spent on the growth of the stem.
3. Watering. Tomatoes in the future, water rarely, but plentifully and best of all in the morning.
And now I will show the planting schemes for tomatoes for polycarbonate greenhouses.
- The planting scheme is two-row: the width of the bed should be about 1.5 meters, and the length - as much as you like, given that the distance between plants should be about 30-60 cm.
- Chess - planting bushes in 2 rows, an interval of about 50 cm, at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other with the formation of 2-3 stems. This scheme is suitable for short-growing short-ripening varieties.
- Chess order, but for tall species, every 60 cm with a distance of 75 cm between rows.
So, planting tomatoes has its own specific algorithm. But in order not to be mistaken in the distance between the plants, carefully study the packaging from the seeds, because it will be most accurately described planting in the ground. In any case, do not plant more often than 30 cm apart and no more than 80 cm.
If you have a small distance, the tomatoes will wither away from the lack of nutrients, and if it is very large, then there will be a small crop, respectively, and the fruits will grow and ripen slowly.
Is it possible to plant peppers, tomatoes and eggplants together?
And in the end I would like to answer the question that concerns many gardeners - is it possible to plant tomatoes, peppers and eggplants in one greenhouse ?!
So, tomatoes and eggplants, as well as potatoes, are best grown as far as possible from each other. Since all sorts of diseases and pests can fly over from one plant to another. Plus, the differences of planting tomatoes and eggplants, which can not be planted next to each other:
- To save the tomatoes from the heat, the glass of the greenhouse is splashed with chalk; for eggplants it is night in such conditions, and this does not affect their growth very well.
- Tomatoes need a draft so that the flowers become pollinated, the eggplant will not grow in drafts.
- Eggplants need high humidity, but with such humidity flowers of tomatoes will not be pollinated, because pollen from the bush will not be able to fly;
- Tomatoes need space and high greenhouses.
Therefore, it is impossible to plant tomatoes and eggplants together !!
As for pepper, yes, you can !! Since the selection of neighbors tomatoes, we must remember that they love the most. For example, tomatoes prefer the sun, but the heat can not stand. Also, they need moderate humidity, abundant, but not frequent watering. Therefore, for such vegetables, excellent neighbors will be different types of greens: dill and parsley, green onions, as well as radishes, melons, watermelons, asparagus beans, peas and peppers.
I hope I answered all your questions about the preparation and planting of tomato seedlings in 2018. If you have any questions, write, I will try to answer them. And also share an article on social networks, I will be immensely grateful. That's all, see you soon !!