What is radiation?
In the modern world, it so happened that ussurrounds a lot of harmful and dangerous things and phenomena, most of which are the work of the person himself. In this article we will talk about radiation, namely: what is radiation.
The concept of "radiation" comes from the Latin word "radiatio" - radiation. Radiation is an ionizing radiation that propagates in the form of a flux of quanta or elementary particles.
What does radiation do
Ionizing this radiation is called becauseradiation, penetrating through any tissues, ionizes their particles and molecules, which leads to the formation of free radicals, which lead to mass death of tissue cells. The effect of radiation on the human body is destructive and is called irradiation.
In small doses, radioactiveIt is dangerous if the doses to the health are not exceeded. If the radiation standards are exceeded, the consequence may be the development of many diseases (up to the cancer). The consequences of minor exposures are difficult to track, since diseases can develop for many years and even decades. If the irradiation was strong, it leads to radiation sickness, and to human death, such types of irradiation are possible only in man-made disasters.
There are internal and external exposure. Internal irradiation can occur when consumed in food irradiated products, inhaling radioactive dust, or through the skin and mucous membranes.
Kinds of radiation emissions
- Alpha radiation is the flow of positively charged particles formed by two protons and neutrons.
- Beta radiation, this is the radiation of electrons (particles with charge -) and positrons (particles with charge +).
- Neutron radiation, this is a stream of uncharged particles - neutrons.
- The emission of photons (gamma radiation, X-ray radiation) is electromagnetic radiation having a large penetrating power.
Sources of radiation
- Natural: nuclear reactions, spontaneous radioactive decay of radionuclides, cosmic rays and thermonuclear reactions.
- Artificial, that is, created by man: nuclear reactors, particle accelerators, artificial radionuclides.
What is the measurement of radiation
For an average person, it is sufficient to know the dose and dose rate of radiation.
The first indicator is characterized by:
- The exposure dose, it is measured in X-rays (P) and shows the strength of ionization.
- The absorbed dose, which is measured in Grains (Gy) and shows the extent of the damage to the body.
- Equivalent dose (measured in Sievert (Sv)), which is equal to the product of the absorbed dose and the quality factor, which depends on the type of radiation.
- Each organ of our body has its ownthe coefficient of radiation risk, multiplying it by an equivalent dose, we get an effective dose, which shows the magnitude of the risk of the consequences of irradiation. It is measured in Sievert.
The dose rate is measured in R / h, mSv / s, that is, it shows the strength of the radiation flux during a certain time of its exposure.
Measuring the radiation level can be done with the help of special devices - dosimeters.
A normal radiation background is 0.10-0.16μSv per hour. A radiation level of up to 30 μSv / h is considered safe. If the radiation level exceeds this threshold, the residence time in the affected area is reduced in proportion to the dose (for example, at 60 μSv / h, the irradiation time is not more than half an hour).
What is the radiation
Depending on the source of internal exposure, you can use:
- When discharging radioactive iodine, take up to 0.25 mg of potassium iodide per day (adult person).
- To remove from the body of strontium and cesium, use a diet high in calcium (milk) and potassium.
- To remove other radionuclides, you can use juices of strongly colored berries (for example, dark grapes).
Now you know what radiation is dangerous. Be attentive to the signs signaling the areas of infection, and stay away from these areas.