Sugar in the blood: what to do?
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Glucose, which is popularly called "sugar inblood "- a vital source of energy for our body. About 50% of the energy our body receives thanks to it. But a significant amount of glucose in the blood is toxic to us. Let's figure out what to do if sugar is increased.
Normal blood sugar level
To determine the level of glucose usedcapillary blood taken from the finger. It is necessary to take an analysis for sugar on an empty stomach, it is forbidden even to drink. On the eve of delivery, you should avoid consuming a large amount of sweet and alcohol. Infectious diseases can cause a small increase in sugar, so in such patients blood sugar is usually not checked.
For adult men and women, the norm is3.3-5.5 mmol / L or 60-100 mg / dl. If the content exceeds the value of 5.5, then this indicates that you have high sugar. What to do, can tell only the doctor. It's just a symptom, and you need to treat the underlying disease. For venous blood, the norm is somewhat different, namely: 4.0-6.1 mmol / l.
During pregnancy, cells of the body are moresensitive to glucose, which now "feeds" two: the mother and her child. Therefore, during pregnancy, the normal level of glucose is 3.8 - 5.8 mmol / l.
Pregnant women at week 24 to 28pregnancy can develop diabetes, or gestational diabetes. It can go by itself or grow into diabetes. Therefore, measuring glucose levels is so important for pregnant women.
In children under one year the blood sugar level is 2.8-4.4 mmol / l, up to 5 years 3.3-3.0 mmol / l. For older children, adult norms are used.
For more information on the normal level of blood sugar, see the article What should be blood sugar.
Why can sugar rise?
Thanks to various regulatory mechanismsthe level of glucose in the blood is relatively constant. A sharp rise can be observed after eating, but the body begins to quickly process it into animal starch - glycogen, which is deposited in the liver and muscles and used as needed.
If the functioning of these mechanisms is violated,then the content of glucose in the blood decreases (hypoglycemia) or increases (hyperglycemia). Distinguish physiological (characteristic of a healthy person) and pathological causes of increasing sugar levels. The following are physiological:
- food intake;
- physical exercise.
To diseases that are accompanied by an increase in the amount of glucose in the blood, include:
- some diseases of the central nervous system;
- Cushing's syndrome;
- kidney disease;
- myocardial infarction.
About what can increase blood sugar, read the article What raises sugar in the blood.
Features of nutrition in hyperglycemia
People with hyperglycemia are required to followA special diet that involves the use of foods with a low content of glucose and other carbohydrates, especially easily digestible. This is the main principle of the diet.
In addition, it is necessary to reduce the calorie content of the diet, especially for people who are overweight. In this case, the food should contain a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals.
People with elevated sugar are advised to follow the diet strictly. Meals should be at the same time, with a quantity of 5 to 6 times. Portions are small, overeating is not allowed.
To find the right diet for you will helpspecialist. After all, when preparing it, you need to take into account the body weight, the thickness of the fat layer, the presence or absence of concomitant diseases, the tolerability of certain products. To calculate the number of calories take into account the type of activity and the level of physical activity.
Of their diet will have to exclude someproducts. If you are not ready to give up completely, then ask your doctor how to get out of the situation. In the list of forbidden products are those that contain a large number of carbohydrates. This sugar, jam, confectionery, grapes, and therefore, raisins, figs and other products.
The lack of sweet in the diet can be compensated with honey. Use it should be a little (no more than a teaspoon) 2 - 3 times a day.
The fact that you are on a diet does not mean that you will have tolimit yourself in everything. Most vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers, all kinds of cabbage, eggplant, pumpkin, zucchini) you can eat in any quantity. But carrots and beets are specific products. The amount of their use must be agreed with the attending physician. It is useful to include in your diet more green, which is an excellent source of vitamins. Onion, parsley, dill, salad, coriander will be appropriate at any time.
Of baked goods you should take a closer lookto types of bread, the content of carbohydrates in which is minimal. This rye, protein-bran and protein-wheat bread. For the production of protein bread, gluten (gluten) is used. In some people with type 2 diabetes, this disease goes side by side with gluten intolerance. Therefore, if after a serving of such bread you feel discomfort in the gastrointestinal tract, then consult your dietician.
Bread should saturate the body with carbohydrates by 40%. That is, if your doctor advises you to eat 300 grams of carbohydrates a day, then about 130 g of it should account for bread.
Care should be taken with fruit, especiallybananas, which contain a significant amount of sugars. Enough harmless apples, pears, plums, peaches, apricots, as well as all sorts of berries. Juices should be consumed either freshly squeezed or on sugar substitutes, for example, xylitol.
In the diet must necessarily be components,restricting the intake of carbohydrates and increasing the protein content. This is lean meat, poultry, fish, vegetable oil, sour-milk products, cheese, cottage cheese.
From drinks it will be useful to include in a ration a yeast drink and broth of a dogrose.
For today in supermarkets hugechoice of products that have a sweet taste, but do not contain glucose. They can replace sugar in all recipes. Also, carefully read the composition of the finished products. You are only suitable for those where sugar is used instead of sugar.
One of the most common substitutessugar is xylitol. It is obtained as a result of processing of cotton seeds and corn kernels. By sweetness, it is not inferior to ordinary sugar, but it does not affect the level of glucose in the blood. In addition, it is less caloric: 100 g of xylitol is only about 400 kcal. Of side effects - a pronounced choleretic and laxative effect.
Fructose in large quantities is contained infruits, berries, honey. It can be used as a sweetener, but in limited quantities. In this case, it will not significantly increase glucose.
Find out what else can lower the blood sugar level, you can from the article How to lower blood sugar.
First aid for sugar increase
People with diabetes can besudden rises in blood glucose levels. Especially dangerous are such seizures for people who do not suspect their problem. For you should become an alarming symptom, if a person complains about:
- frequent urination;
- a feeling of hunger and nausea (sometimes nausea can even be accompanied by vomiting);
- dry mouth;
- fuzzy and blurry vision;
- headache and abdominal pain;
- weakness and irritability;
- if you sniff out to the exhaled air, you can smell the acetone.
If you notice similar symptoms in someone you know, call an ambulance immediately. While she is coming to you, put the person in a well-ventilated room.
In the case when a person with similar symptomsaware of his diagnosis, he should have insulin nearby. The patient himself will tell you where to get it and how much to inject. How to inject insulin, you can find out how to prick insulin.