Sensor of water pressure drops in the water supply system: specific use and adjustment
The streamlined operation of the water supply system is one of the most important attributes of a comfortable stay both in a chic cottage and in a modest summer cottage. Often, owners have to equip an individual water supply network - not all settlements have a centralized water supply.
To install the equipment lasted longer, put a water pressure sensor in the water supply system.
Purpose and scope of the device
Questions that are not even suspected by many residents of large cities, after the acquisition of suburban real estate immediately become relevant. Among them - the device of a personal water supply, one of the important elements of which is a pressure sensor.
Life in the open air is doubly pleasant if you can take a bath, use a washing machine or turn on automatic watering of the beds planted with homemade vegetables, strawberries and greens. To meet all the needs of the residents of a particular private household, a streamlined water supply system is required.
To automate the process of water intake in autonomous water pipes, pressure sensors are installed, the specific characteristics of which are introduced by the following selection:
The owners of cottages and cottages use water from wells and boreholes. For its fence used modern equipment, the heart of which serves as a pump. He, as necessary, pumps up water. To extend the service life, install a special sensor that monitors the pressure of water in the pipeline.
The second name of this device is a pressure switch. In some models of pumping stations, it comes in the kit. The sensor has the settings set by the manufacturer. Its purpose is to provide the optimal frequency of switching the pump on and off.
When 5-6 households live in the house permanently, they turn on the taps to wash their hands, use the toilet, do the dishes, take a bath, use water to wash the car or water the garden. It is difficult to imagine how long the pump could withstand, whose operation is not controlled by the sensor. It would be included every time users need water.
Controller model classification
The market of equipment and spare parts for water supply systems is replete with offers of domestic and foreign factories. Among the pressure sensors can be found as inexpensive and simple models of Russian manufacturers, and expensive multifunctional solutions.
All types of sensors can be divided into 2 main groups:
The first type of instrument has a metal plate that reacts to the pressure of the hydraulic tank membrane in the system, closing or opening the contacts. If its value is insufficient, then the pump is turned on, and otherwise - off.
The electronic type of sensors sends a signal about membrane deformation to the automatic control system. The obtained information is analyzed, the command to turn the pump on / off is received.
Such equipment is very sensitive to the slightest deviation from the set values, has protection from the "dry" course.Depending on the model, it is possible to automatically start the system after an emergency shutdown, notify the owner of the problems by sending a message to a mobile phone and other additional functions.
For example, the Spanish KIT 02 regulator, which functions as a pressure sensor, is able to maintain a constant pressure of a given value, protects it from dry running, has a check valve, an integrated pressure gauge, and dampens hydraulic shocks. But the cost of this model is far from 1000 rubles.
The most popular options for water pressure devices in a private water supply system are:
- Russian - RDM-5 from Dzhileks;
- German - Grundfos FF 4-4, Tival FF 4-4, Condor MDR 5/5;
- Italian - PM / 5G, PM / 3W from ITALTECNICA, EASY SMALL from Pedrollo;
- Spanish - electronic regulator KIT 00, 01,02, 05 from ESPA.
One of the budget decisions can be a sensor from the firm Dzhileks RDM-5. It has factory settings for the lower and upper limits of 1.4 and 2.8 atmospheres, respectively. You can change the range yourself, given that the working values of this device from 1.0 to 4.6 atmospheres.
The device of the German company Grundfos model FF4-4 is characterized by the ability to make settings with an accuracy of up to 0.01 atm. Its working range is from 0.07 to 4 atmospheres, and FF4-8 - up to 8 atm. It has a transparent cover and a special scale inside the device.
All this greatly simplifies self-adjustment - no need to turn the nuts and wonder if it is enough. The scale immediately shows the result. The main negative quality of the device is the cost, which is almost 5 times higher than the RDM-5.
Device and principle of operation of a typical sensor
Most often, owners use mechanical type sensors. Their main advantage is independence from electricity. They do not require the allocation of a special outlet for switching the device into operation. These devices are designed to turn on and off the pump when it reaches the specified pressure. Therefore, the pump is connected to the network through the sensor.
The simplest and most popular mechanical sensor RDM-5. It consists of the following elements:
- metal platform;
- adjusting bolts with nuts;
- plastic case;
- electrical contacts.
More expensive models of foreign manufacturers can have a scale for adjustment, an integrated pressure gauge and other components that allow you to perform a variety of functions.
By the number of opportunities and cost, we can distinguish such groups of pressure sensors:
- simple pressure switch;
- additional sensor for protection against dry running. It is paired with a simple relay, for example, from the company Aquatica;
- Water pressure controller - a complex device with a sensor, pressure gauge, many other functions and a fairly high price.
The device of electronic controllers with built-in pressure switch and pressure gauge is more complicated than that of mechanical ones. Such devices, depending on the model, have an additional regulator that prevents pressure drops in the system. This always ensures a uniform pressure, regardless of whether the pump is working at a particular moment.
The sensor that controls the operation of the pump is installed, as a rule, in water supply systems with a hydroaccumulator. The device is always mounted in front of the storage tank. Its function is to continuously measure the water pressure in the system. The sensor compares these readings with the specified indicators.
As soon as the pressure becomes lower than provided by the settings, the contacts are closed and the pump is turned on, starting the water intake. It fills the hydroaccumulator, which helps to create the required pressure. When the sensor fixes the upper pressure limit set by the owner of the house, the electrical contacts open - the pump stops working.
The frequency of on / off depends on the volume of the accumulator, the pressure in the system and the number of water consumers. For example, if the owner of the cottage takes a bath, her husband enjoys a hydromassage in the shower stall, and a dishwasher works in the kitchen, the sensor at some point will turn on the pump.
At first, when the taps and shower heads are turned on, water will flow from the storage tank. As soon as its amount decreases, the capacity membrane will also reduce resistance. Accordingly, the pressure in the system will be less. The membrane of the hydraulic tank will immediately react to this change and, as soon as the reading reaches the lower pressure limit set by the user, the contacts of the pressure switch close.
At this point, the pump will turn on and begin to pump water into the system, at the same time filling the vacant space in the accumulator. If the taps are still open, water will flow from the well until the pressure in the system reaches the upper limit of the range set by the owner.
If an electronic controller with additional functions is used as a sensor in the house, then at the moment when the pressure drops, the water pressure does not become weaker. The built-in regulator helps to maintain the desired pressure, and the user will not notice anything, unlike the situation using a simple pressure sensor.
Principles of adjustment
The device that monitors the pressure and controls the operation of the pump in automatic mode, is very convenient to use. He almost does not need attention and maintenance. Is 1-2 times a year to clean the garbage and check how the sensor copes with the control of a given range of water pressure.
What you need to know before starting work?
Initially, the owner, who bought such a device, has 2 options:
- leave the settings set at the factory;
- independently set the desired response range.
The first option is convenient when the parameters of the pump and the pressure in the system correspond to the factory values. In simple domestic models, they are 1.4 and 2.8 atmospheres, respectively, for the lower and upper limits. Depending on the device and the manufacturer's company, these numbers may differ.
If the specified range fits the owner of the house, then it remains only to install the sensor, following the installation instructions. Otherwise, an independent adjustment of the sensor controlling the water pressure in the private water supply system will be necessary.
It is more convenient to adjust the desired range in models with a built-in pressure gauge and a more sensitive scale of divisions. But the cost of such a decision will cost a tidy sum.
Before proceeding with the adjustment of the device, you need to look at the maximum allowable operating range in the passport and compare this data with the pump power. It is important to keep a small margin - the equipment should not be allowed to work to the maximum. This gap is about 0.5 atmospheres.
Also, it should be remembered that the optimum response range of the pump is 1-1.5 atm. Do not do more - there may be water hammer, which cause irreparable damage to equipment. The minimum threshold for switching on the pump into operation must be at least 1.4 atm.
Even before setting up the sensor, it is imperative to know what the pressure in the accumulator is. To do this, it is disconnected from the network, poured water, pressure gauge check pressure. If the readings are 1.4 atmospheres and less, then you need to pump up to 1.5 atm.Otherwise, bleed excess air to this value by pressing on the nipple.
Step-by-step adjustment of the pressure sensor
Depending on the sensor model, the steps to adjust it will differ slightly. Each device has its own parts that are responsible for setting the pump response range. For example, the German FF4-8 has a scale of divisions, where everything is extremely easy to regulate. And you do not need to remove the cover for the adjustment - it is transparent.
If this is a complex electronic pressure controller with additional functions, then you should carefully read in the passport the specifics of specifying the operating pressure for the system. Moreover, it should be at least 0.5 atm less than the maximum permissible values.
Regardless of the brand and model of the device that monitors the pressure, you must first check the lower limit at which the pump is triggered. To do this, drain the water by opening the faucet. As soon as pumping of water begins, it is necessary to write down indications of the manometer.
When the pump shuts down, this value should also be recorded - this is the upper limit of the maximum allowable pressure in the system. Moreover, these readings should not differ from each other by more than 1.5 atmospheres.
Knowing the initial range of response of the equipment, it remains to adjust the upper limit and its difference with the lower one. If it is a model with two springs, then the adjustment will occur using a wrench.
First you have to remove the protective cover to see under it 2 springs. Big is responsible for changing the upper limit of the limit. To reduce or increase the limit value, you have to turn the nut. Moreover, it is better to do it slowly, turning 0.5 - 1 turn.
Twisting it once, you need to open the valve and check the pressure value obtained on the pressure gauge to turn on the pump. If the indicator is not satisfied, continue turning the nut.
The small spring is responsible for changing the difference between the upper and lower pressure. When twisting it is important to remember that this difference should not be more than 1.5 atm.When the nut is tightened before the big spring, and the nut is also adjusted, it is necessary to open the valve again and begin to flush.
As soon as the pump starts, you need to remember the value indicated by the pressure gauge - this will be the lower limit. After that, you have to wait for the pressure in the system to rise. As soon as it reaches the upper limit, the pump will shut off. This indication also needs to be remembered and compared with the bottom.
If the numbers differ by 1.5-1 atm, do not overlap with the minimum and maximum allowable working values, then everything worked out. Otherwise, you need to drain the water again and start the adjustment again.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video review of sensor models that monitor the pressure in the water supply system:
Detailed video clip on the electronic relay to control the water pressure:
Information in the video format about the features of adjustment of the domestic water pressure sensor:
A video about the features of servicing a pressure sensor that has worked for 2 years. Initially, the task was to change the pump's previous response range:
After reviewing the specifics of the work and adjustment of water pressure sensors in private water supply systems, you can customize the device with your own hands.
If you still have doubts about your own strength, then it is better to call a specialist who enjoys a good reputation. It is important that the sensor works correctly, then there will be no problems with the entire water supply system of the cottage / country house.