Reserve for the reduction of the value of tangible assets: posting and creation
Reserves are one of the sources of the enterprise,required to cover losses in connection with the depreciation of inventories. Usually they are formed at the end of the year. At the same time, the book value of property for which an insurance fund is created is changing. In order to collect information on accounting transactions, the amounts are reflected on account 14. Let us examine in detail the process of formation and use of the amounts of this fund.
Reserves are part of the sources of an enterprise,grouped by designation in special insurance funds. The main goal of their education is considered to be the recognition of the possibility of an unfavorable financial situation by the enterprise: the excess of expenses over revenues. In particular, a reserve for the reduction of the value of material assets is created when their market estimates the property below the cost of its actual cost price. Most often this is due to damage to property or its physical and moral obsolescence.
The value of the asset in the balance sheet is shown net ofThe amounts taken in the reserve for the reduction of the value of material values. The posting at creation looks so: the account of other expenses is debited, the account 14 is credited.
Rules for the creation of reserves
One of the main documents regulating accounting at the enterprise is the accounting policy. It contains detailed information about:
- whether there is the possibility of creating reserves and what;
- how often to re-evaluate inventory;
- on which sources of information about current prices rely on the calculation;
- and other specific and general rules for the formation of this reserve.
Let us examine an example of the main part of accounting policy regarding this fund:
- The provision is made on the basis ofof property balances at the end of each quarter after its revaluation, which must be completed on or before the 25th day following the reporting date of the month.
- A check for the loss of the value of assets is made only for those funds whose value as of the date of the report is more than 250 thousand rubles.
- For the correctness of determining the market value of inventoriescan be used: the prices of similar assets purchased in recent deliveries, the average value of the property value for the region, the data of the last resource calculation for similar values. If additional costs are required to sell the valuated inventory, the value should be deducted from the market value.
- Based on the data obtained,Each nomenclature number or group of similar property is a reserve for the reduction of the value of material values. The posting is used such: the account 91.2 is debited, the account 14 is credited. The obligatory condition is a positive difference between the first and second indicator.
- The costs and revenues generated by the creation and liquidation of the reserve lead to a permanent obligation in the form of a tax or a tax asset.
Compliance with the requirements of the accounting policy for the creation of a fund is a mandatory requirement for the accountant.
An account 14 has been created to collect such information. This is an active-passive account with a one-way balance, the data of which is used when calculating the balance line "Inventories". When creating a reserve, the amount is indicated in the loan. Write-off is made on a debit basis. Closing the account assumes that all balances will be spent for the next reporting period. The data of synthetic accounting are reflected in the journal-order No. 10-1. Analytical accounting is conducted for each unit of inventory (according to the nomenclature number or category of similar property).
Rules for creating
Allowance for impairment of tangible propertyvalues is a method of analyzing and grouping depreciated property. It should be created only when the value of its possible realization falls or becomes lower than the actual cost price. It should not be allowed to depreciate large categories of property. For example, you can not write off all fixed assets or materials in the reserve.
The enterprise undertakes to provide settlementthe cost of funds for the amount of which an insurance fund is created. The reserve for the reduction of the value of material assets is formed at the expense of the financial results of the enterprise.
Calculation of reserve amount
As a rule, the accountant resorts to creatingreserves before the formation of statements at the end of the year. In the course of revaluation of inventory and the detection of depreciation of a certain property, it becomes necessary to write off the amounts in the reserve for the reduction of the value of tangible assets. The posting describing this process consists of a debited account 14 and a credited 91 account.
The total value of the property transferred to the reserve is determined by the formula: P = Cmarket.- FROMfact., where:
- FROMmarket.- market value of the asset;
- FROMfact.- the actual cost of property.
If it turns out that the value of the actualthe prime cost of a unit of commodities will be greater than the market value, the accountant has no right to create a reserve. Values used in the calculation should be taken from current and reliable sources containing official data on exchange and market processes.
Example of formation of a reserve in an enterprise
Consider how a reserve is formed to reduce the value of material values:in the balance of the organization at the end of 2014 are listedmaterials of a similar nature for 2 million 120 thousand rubles (including VAT in the amount of 120 thousand rubles). The next inventory showed that it is possible to sell assets only for 900 thousand. A decision was made to form an insurance fund on these materials. Create a reserve for the required amount and execute the transaction with the appropriate posting.
To begin with, we will calculate the amount for which a reserve will be formed to reduce the value of tangible assets in 2014:
- 2 120 000 - 120 000 - 900 000 = 1 million 100 thousand rubles.
Then you need to make the account assignment: the account 91.2 is debited, the account 14 on the revealed sum is credited. Now when compiling the annual financial statements in the balance sheet, the market value of the depreciated materials will be indicated, equal in this case to 900 thousand rubles.
Recovery of provision
The amounts previously sent to a separate fund for the reduction of value can be restored if:
- the property is disposed of on any grounds;
- the market value of the reserved assets increased.
The property returned to turnover is reflected inmarket value, and the difference between the cost of the created reserve and the increased price is written off as other income. The posting is executed as follows: the account 14 is debited, the account 91.2 is credited. The same write-off scheme is applied if the property is written off for production or sale.
Example of registration of property retirement from the reserve
Let's consider completely the process of creating and further writing off the amounts from the fund for reducing the value of commodities. As a basis, we accept the following condition:At the end of the reporting year,170 m of cotton material costing 62 rubles per meter. But the market price changed from the moment of purchase to 50 rubles. Management decided to create a reserve. At the beginning of next year, 120 m of cotton cloth were dispensed for 62 rubles. per meter. Calculate the amount of the reserve during the creation and after the sale of the material and make the entries.
Let's perform the following actions:
- Determine the amount of the reserve: 62 × 170 - 50 × 170 = 2040 р. - the amount that must be written off in the reserve for the reduction of the value of tangible assets. Posting: account 91.2 is debited, account 14 is credited.
- Revenues from the sale of the material amounted to: 62 × 120 - 50 × 120 = 1,440 rubles. This amount is subject to debiting: account 14 is debited, account 91.2 is credited.
- The amount of the residual value of the reserve will be: 2040 - 1440 = 600 rubles.
On account 14, the transactions performed will be reflected as follows:Account 14
Сн = 0
About (Am) = 1440
O (Km) = 2040
Cc = 600
In the buh. balance at the end of the month 50 m of the remaining material in the reserve will be reflected at market value, ie, at 62 rubles. per meter, which is 3100 rubles.
Reflection in tax accounting
Allowance for impairment of tangible propertyvalues in the tax account as such does not exist. But writing off amounts leads to the formation of a permanent tax asset from the amount of the difference between market value and actual value, and the formation of a reserve is an obligation. In this regard, the creation of a fund for the reduction of the value of goods and materials is accompanied by additional posting: Дт "Profits and losses" Кт "VAT", and write-off - Дт "VAT" Кт "Profits and losses". The amount of the tax asset or liability is calculated at the interest rate, which is multiplied by the difference between the market prices and the cost price.
Reserves for reducing the value of goods and materials -a prudent way to wait out the depreciation period of property and get out of the situation with the least losses. Creation and cancellation of amounts should be strictly in accordance with the PBU and the accounting policy of the enterprise. Do not forget about the tax obligations that accompany the process of forming a reserve fund.