Luxembourg population: description, composition, employment and strength
A small country in Western Europe is Luxembourg.Despite the miniature size, the state has a rich history, a peculiar culture and a very patriotic population. Luxembourg has a high quality of life, which positively affects the demography of the country.
It is not easy to see the map of Europe Luxembourg.The capital, area, population can be characterized in very small numerical values. The area of the country, for example, is only 2,586.4 km ². Next to such neighbors as Belgium, Germany and France, the country, of course, looks very modest. However, the state and the people, Luxembourg for whom the beloved Motherland, are very proud that they manage to maintain their sovereignty surrounded by such powerful countries.
The country's relief is predominantly hillyThe hill, which in the north rests on the Ardennes mountains. The main waterway of the state is the Moselle River and its tributaries. Also there are several more medium-sized ponds. If you look at the map of Luxembourg, it becomes clear that the country is mostly populated. Dense forests and rivers occupy free territory (about 20% of the total area). The climate here is temperate, influenced by the near Atlantic. Luxemburgers often compare their state with Switzerland, arguing that they have similar living conditions. However, the mountains are smaller here, and the climate is temperate.
History of settlement
Territory, which housed a modernLuxembourg, was already settled in ancient times. Archaeologists have found a lot of evidence that already in the era of the upper Neolithic there were parking lots. The sedentary population appears around the 13th century BC. Later there lived Gauls and Franks. During this period, the population of Luxembourg was small. Actually, the history of the country begins in the Middle Ages, when here in the X century a protective fort is created. At this time, the gradual mass population of the territory begins. This piece of land for several centuries is inherited in several aristocratic families in Europe. Castles and cities are being built here, the population density is growing. Soon the country takes a modern look.
State of Luxembourg
Luxembourg is a state whose populationis of interest because of its size, has all the attributes of a modern country. From the political point of view, the state is a constitutional monarchy. The main person in the state is the Grand Duke, today it's Henri, or Henry (in German), from the monarchical family of Nassau. He has the right to accept and dismiss the government, to interfere in legislative activities, to represent the country at the highest levels. In addition, it can have some effect on the work of deputies.
However, in practice all legislative powerremains for the parliament, and the executive for the government. The Duke is only the face of the country. The state has a multi-party system. Thanks to democratic elections, the parliament is elected. The state of Luxembourg has a lot of weight in the European Union. Here are several institutions of united Europe, including the treasury. In 1867, the permanent neutrality of the state was proclaimed. And only to enter the united Europe the country decided to give up part of its sovereignty.
The country is divided into three districts, which, in theirturn, are broken into cantons, and those - are broken down into communes. The main population of the country Luxembourg lives in cities. In total there are 12 cantons in the state, each of which heads a large settlement. The largest city is the capital of the same name. Its strength is about 100 thousand people. The second largest city is Al-sur-Alzette. Its population is about 30 thousand. Next are almost equal Differdange and Dudelange, a little under 20 thousand each. In the remaining cities lives less than 10 thousand people. The smallest town is Vianden. There are only 1,5 thousand inhabitants.
Traditions and Culture
Population, demography, religion, traditions, customs,The culture of Luxembourg is a subject for long discussion and research. It can be briefly noted that local features were formed under the strong influence of the nearest neighbors, especially Germany and France. The Dutch culture also had a certain impact. Despite a fairly short independent history, the population, Luxembourg for whom is the beloved homeland, is very patriotic and diligently supporting its national identity. Since the state was formed on the basis of a Christian monastery, the canons of faith are still very strong here.
Approximately 70% of the population profess Catholicism, butin the world and with them the Orthodox, Jews, Protestants and Anglicans coexist. The most favorite and widely celebrated holiday in the country is Easter. On this day, national dishes are prepared, festivals and concerts are held. The cuisine of Luxembourg is unique, although the features of neighboring countries can be seen in it. The locals love meat and know how to cook it, also there are a lot of baked goods, cheeses and unique Mozel wines on their tables. The population of the country is distinguished by healthy conservatism. It's not very fond of innovations and revere the traditions. Also residents are extremely polite.
Close proximity to several large countriesmakes the population to be polyglots. The official languages of Luxembourg are German and French. This allows residents of the country to easily communicate with their neighbors. In 1982, the status of the official language was Luxembourgish, which is a Mosel-Frankish dialect. They are owned by all the locals. It is on him that they prefer to talk in everyday life. Today, integration into a larger Europe forces residents to learn English. And the young people speak it fluently. But people in small villages may not understand this language at all.
The fresh statistics of LuxembourgThe fact that 60% of its members are indigenous Luxembourgers. They are descendants of Celtic tribes with a large admixture of Germanic and Frankish blood. Also in the country there are a lot of immigrants from Germany, Belgium and France. A fairly large number of the Dutch diaspora. In recent years, Luxembourg has experienced a large influx of immigrants from Italy and Portugal. In connection with the recent events in the Middle East, the country awaits the appearance of Syrian refugees, but so far their number does not reach a significant figure. The government is taking certain actions to prevent a large flow of visitors. Therefore, while the number of indigenous people is not threatened.
Dynamics of population
The main value of the country is the populationLuxembourg. The population for more than 300 years of observations of the dynamics of growth has increased more than 100 times. More than 500 thousand people live on the territory of the country today. And sociologists predict a further increase in the population. On average, the dynamics of the country changes as follows: about 18 children are born here daily. Every day 12 people die. Also an average of 30 emigrants come to Luxembourg daily.
Today, one of the mosthigh population densities in Europe. And experts say that this indicator will only grow, especially as a result of migration processes. Today the density is more than 156 people per square kilometer. For example, in Russia this figure is estimated at 8.5, and in France - 116.
Today the population of Luxembourg is growingslightly more than 2000 people a year. At the same time, the increase is mainly provided by emigrants, as the birth rate here, as in all of Europe, is not very high. So, for the last 100 years in the country this figure has decreased from 31 to 11 people per 1000 inhabitants. But in the country there is a steady increase in life expectancy. It is today: for men - 73 years, for women - 80 years. This is slightly higher than the world average. Sociologists estimate the coefficient of demographic burden in the country, that is, the number of disabled people. People who are younger than 15 and older than 65 years are referred to it. This figure is 49.5. It is considered quite low, since the number of able-bodied people is quite able to feed dependents. The pension factor is 22%.
Speaking of age indicators,To note that Luxembourg belongs to a successful rejuvenating type of states. The number of young people here predominates over the elderly by about 15%, and the largest number are working-age residents. The indicators for the sex ratio in Luxembourg as a whole fit into the European trend. At birth, the number of boys is slightly above girls, and at the age of 65, the number of men is almost one-third less than that of women.
The country recorded a largenumber of inhabitants. The population, Luxembourg for whom is a place of permanent residence, experiences some difficulties with employment. The unemployment rate is 6.6. This is due to the fact that migrant workers come to the country every year, whose number reaches 50% of the able-bodied population. About 80% of the population is employed in the services sector, a large part of which are catering and tourism. About 18% work in the field of industrial production, in agriculture - only 2.5%.
A country's economy
Luxembourg, whose per capita GDPis about 100 thousand dollars, is one of the richest countries in the world. Local people are used to a high standard of living and do not want to part with it. Today, the country is one of the best medical services in Europe. The government constantly cares about the quality of education and the living conditions of its people. The country has a rather low unemployment rate and low inflation. Today, the crisis leaves an imprint on economic indicators, but they are quite optimistic.
The country is actively developing industry.If before the main source of income was the steel industry, today the chemical industry is developing, the production of food products is growing. The biggest problem of Luxembourg's economy is a huge external debt. It is 80% of GDP. The government is trying to reduce economic risks, actively diversifying production, facilitating the development of entrepreneurship.