LED lighting marking specifications. Choosing LED lamps: how to save energy with LED lamps
Modern LED lamps can be classified according to several criteria:
on purpose of the lamp;
according to the type of its construction;
as a base;
on the properties of the emitted light.
To destination LED lamps are divided into:
lamps of the main lighting in residential premises;
lamps for local designer lighting;
lamps for outdoor architectural lighting and landscape design;
lamps for use in an explosive atmosphere;
lamps for lighting streets, car parks, bridges, sidewalks, railway stations, etc .;
lamps for floodlights, which are installed on industrial buildings and territories.
By type, depending on other properties, LED lamps are divided into:
general purpose lamps for residential and office spaces;
directional light lamps for spotlights, which are applicable for local lighting of interiors of buildings, shop windows, advertising structures, and for landscape lighting;
linear lamps in the form of oblong tubes, for the replacement of fluorescent lamps.
According to the type of cap, there are mainly five main types:
Socles E27, E14
Standard threaded connection, found in most ordinary incandescent bulbs. This type of cap was introduced by Edison himself, and the letter "E" is the first letter of the inventor's name. The numbers indicate the diameter of the cap in millimeters.
Today, the E27, E14 and other sizes, are the most common types among all the caps, including LED lamps. Cap E14 is also called the "minion". Bulbs with such a cap usually have a candle-shaped flask, an elongated shape, and are used mainly in wall lamps, floor lamps, and table lamps.
A two-pin connector, the pins of which have thickenings at the ends, designed for pivoting the lamp into the holder.Such bases have, for example, starters in old gas-discharge lamps, widely used earlier in public places. The letters in the title of the cap indicate the following: G - pin base, U - with thickening at the ends. 10mm is the distance between the pins.
This type of cap is the most electrically safe, it is convenient to use, and LED lamps with such a cap, as a rule, are designed for a voltage of 220 volts. Mainly, lamps with such a base - those that are installed in the ceiling lights (reflex LED lamps).
The bases of the type GU5.3, the bases of the same pin family, have become widespread recently, when halogen reflector lamps in ceiling luminaires became widespread. Basically, this spot lighting, mounted in plasterboard ceilings.
LED lamps with the same base, came to replace the same base, and are easily mounted in the cartridges. The holes in the cartridges for this base, exactly match, the distance between the pins is exactly the same as the holes, and is 5.3 mm, so the installation is quite simple and safe.
This base is characteristic of linear tube-shaped lamps.As in the previous case, 13 is the distance between pins in millimeters. Often, these are lamps for ceiling lamps, which are often used to illuminate large areas of shopping centers, warehouses, production shops, and other rooms where the ceiling is high enough and the area is long.
As for the marking of LED lamps, it is similar to the marking of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and on the packaging the manufacturer indicates comprehensive information about the product. In addition to the inscription LED, indicating that the lamp is LED, other parameters of the lamp are also reported. Let us consider in more detail, by example, what is indicated on the package, and what are these parameters.
The package must indicate the power consumed by this LED lamp from the network. As a rule, the power of incandescent lamps is indicated on the package and equivalent in luminous flux; however, this equivalent parameter is given only for comparison. The real, of those that are commercially available at the present time, is in the range from 1 to 25 W, depending on the needs of the buyer.
Comparison of LED lamps with other types of lamps:
Service life in hours.This parameter may differ from different manufacturers, and according to statistics, the service life of LED lamps in normal, not extreme conditions, with high-quality mains power can reach 50,000 hours.
Energy efficiency class
Of course, LED lamps are very energy efficient, and are always listed on the packaging. If earlier this indicator was limited to the level “A”, then with the development of energy-efficient LED lighting, additional classes “A +” and “A ++” appeared, indicating a significantly lower value of the ratio of power consumed to power calculated from the effective light flux.
In this example, the type of bulb A55 is indicated - a standard form, as in a conventional incandescent lamp. There are other options: C35 - a candle, G45 - a ball, R39, R50, R63 - mirrored, and others. The flask can be matte or transparent, it is indicated on the packaging.
It can be different, from very warm to very cold, and for a person it is more comfortable to have a “warmer” light, closer to yellow, as is the case with incandescent lamps. Cold light is more suitable for industrial premises.street lighting and other places where a person does not want to get maximum comfort, and if a cold light is installed in a living room, it will adversely affect the human nervous system. On the package, this indicator is necessarily indicated.
The color temperature is measured in Kelvin, and the ranges have corresponding names when labeling: warm white light (2700-3200 K), neutral white or daylight (3500-4500 K), white light (4700 - 6000 K), cold white light (from 6000 K)
LED brightness indicator measured in Lumens. For clarity, you can use the table, and get an idea of the light flux, which give ordinary incandescent bulbs. Of course, LED lamps are able to provide the appropriate luminous flux, consuming 7-10 times less electrical energy.
Ra color rendition index
For sunlight, this is 100, for incandescent bulbs - from 90 and above, for LED - from 80 to 89. This indicator reflects how close to its natural color the body remains, illuminated by this light source. An indicator of more than 80 Ra is generally considered quite high.
In the example above, it can be seen that this LED lamp can operate at a temperature from -40 to +40 degrees Celsius, be powered by an alternating voltage from 150 to 250 V, frequency 50/60-Hz, while the maximum (peak) current consumption will be 0.065 A .
LED lighting is the most advanced type of lighting at the moment. The principle of operation of LED lamps is based on the fact that when a certain type of electrical tog is passed through a semiconductor, light is emitted. We will not go into the physical details why this is happening. I can only say that this effect was discovered at the beginning of the twentieth century in Britain and for a long time was not used for it.
The active use of LEDs began in the 50-70s of the last century. The first LEDs emitted a very dim light and as a rule it was red. Such diodes were used mainly as indicators for various measuring devices. The widespread use of LEDs began only when a bright blue LED was obtained in the Nichia laboratory in 1990. LED lamps are not only from the diodes themselves. They also include a lens that scatters luminous flux.A special dye-phosphor balloon is applied to the lens. With the help of this ball you can get white light or light of warmer temperature - yellow.
In more detail about the history of the creation and distribution of LED lamps, we will talk in the next article, and in this let's consider what they are. In fact, there are so many types of LED lighting. It depends on their purpose, manufacturing technology, capabilities and other parameters. In this article we will try to disassemble all types of LED lamps. So that when all of you decide to replace conventional lamps with LEDs, you know everything you can about what they are.
First, let's look at the most common classification. This is a classification by scope. It is a little blurred, because the boundaries between the categories are established not so much by the features of the lamps themselves, as much as where you will apply them.
And so, behind the application area, we highlight the following types of LED lighting lamps:
- Street - these lamps are used to illuminate various objects on the street: houses, roads, parks. Highly resistant to weathering and mechanical damage.May not be suitable for use in the home because of the non-standard size of the base and are usually very bright.
- Home lamps - the purpose of these lamps is to replace ordinary incandescent lamps, they usually correspond to them in size, shape, appearance. They also have a standard cap size, the same as in conventional lamps and the luminous flux parameters are not very different.
- Spotlights - specially designed lamps with the desired brightness of light, directivity and angle of dispersion suitable for use in projectors.
- Industrial lamps - used for lighting hangars, warehouses, garages and other large industrial premises. They are characterized by high brightness, angle of dispersion, as well as protection from damage.
- LED lamps for plants - these lamps are specifically designed to improve plant growth. Correctly selected color and spectrum of radiation, as well as they can emit ultraviolet light. Typically, this is a smart lamp. What is a smart lamp, we'll talk below.
- Car lamps - lamps designed for use in cars: interior lighting, headlamps and dipped headlights.
- Decorative lamps - these lamps do not aim to illuminate the room, but rather to decorate it. They can be of different colors, and also, as a rule, have a small angle of dispersion.
If you take a closer look, our website has a section for each type of LED lamps, where their features and proper use will be described in detail in the future. We considered the main classification, so to speak, to create a foundation, now let's consider the types of lamps depending on their structure and functions.
LED lamps can use various types of LED matrixes. These are the types of design LED lamps are:
- Plain LED Matrix - on the matrix are placed the usual blue LEDs, and the lens is covered with a ball of a special substance - phosphor, which converts the blue light, and we get white or we need a shade of yellow.
- RGB Matrix - This matrix contains three different types of diodes - red, green and blue. Red, Green and Blue respectively. When mixing these colors, we get white too. Here in the lamp it is possible to precisely adjust the shade of color by adding or reducing the intensity of a particular type of diode.But in this way much less energy efficiency.
Also in different lamps LEDs can be used manufactured by different technologies. LEDs are:
- DIP and Superflux - these very popular LEDs are used in various devices, indicators and displays, but they give a very low luminous flux, therefore they are unsuitable for use in LED lamps.
- SMD (Surface Mounted Device) - the most popular LEDs used in LED lamps. As the name implies, they are attached to the surface of the board. The SMD xxxx LEDs are indicated, where xxxx are four digits indicating the size of the board in millimeters. They can be used not only in LED lamps, but anywhere, and deserve their popularity by ease of installation, use and low energy consumption. For example, a SMD5730 diode measuring 5.7 by 3 mm consumes 0.5 watts and emits 55 lumens of light.
- Powerful SMD LEDs - Specially designed for use in lighting. As a rule, they consume about 10 watts and more energy, they shine very brightly and do not require additional lenses to scatter light.
- COB (Chip on Board) is the most modern type of LED. The diode chip is mounted directly on the board, and this improves characteristics such as cooling, reduces the volume and makes the light more uniform.
If the LEDs used and the type of matrix for you are not very important, then the size of the base, this is what you will come across for sure. So here you need a little knowledge not to buy a light bulb which therefore you will not know where to screw it. The most common such types of LED lamp lighting:
- E27 - the most common thread with a thread-oriented use instead of conventional incandescent bulbs. You can say this is the standard type of LED lamp for home. \
- E14 - A smaller version of the base E27. Such lamps are suitable mainly for modern lamps and chandeliers.
- E40 - a very large threaded base. Such lamps are used in industry.
- GU5.3 - A relatively new type of base, designed to replace halogen lamps with LED. It consists of two small pins, exactly the same as in halogen lamps. When replacing the cartridge and base are fully compatible and do not require any processing.
- GU10 - Another type GU base, most often used in pendant lamps.
- G13 - type of base with two pins, used most often in ceiling lamps.
- G4 - a base consisting of two small wires at the end, usually used in small light bulbs.
- G9 - one more base for replacing halogen lamps.
- R7s - base of quartz spotlight lamps.
- G23 - base of compact fluorescent lamps.
More LED lamps can be divided by the warmth of the light emitted by them. Conventional incandescent lamps can emit only yellow color. At the same time, several shades of LED are available:
- very cold blue
- natural white
- warm shade of white
- yellow hue like a sunset
- pinkish tint like before dawn
In general, the temperature of LED lamps can range from 2600 to 6000 Kelvin.
Due to the presence of a power supply in the lamp housing, LED lamps can operate on various voltages and types of current. The most common ones are:
Depending on the additional features, these types of LED lighting lamps are distinguished:
- dimmable - these lamps support brightness adjustment using conventional dimers. In the lamp housing there is a special device that perceives a change in current and correctly interprets this change by lowering or increasing the brightness of the LEDs. Such lamps are much more expensive than ordinary ones and they are more difficult to find.
- smart bulbs - these lamps, besides their main function - shine, can be controlled via Bluetooth using a smartphone or tablet, programmed to turn on or off at a specified time and many other actions. They are even more expensive than dimmable lamps.
The last thing I would like to consider in the article about the types of LED lighting lamps is the shape and size of the lamps. This is a very broad topic, as there are a lot of forms of LED lamps and you cannot do without pictures here. But we will analyze it in detail in the next article, but for now let's just list the names:
- A tube
In this article we looked at the general concepts of classification of LED lamps. A more detailed description of some broad topics, such as the type of base and the shape of the lamp, can be found in the following articles. If you have any questions or have suggestions for improving the article - write in the comments!
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LED lamps or LED lamps (LED - Light Emitting Diodes) - These are modern energy-saving light sources intended for lighting streets, industrial, public, residential premises and other objects.
How to choose LED lamps (LED lamps)?
The principle of operation of LED lamps is based on a physical phenomenon.electroluminescence, when by passing an electric current through two conductors located at a certain distance from each other, electromagnetic radiation of the visible spectrum is emitted, which is light.
Types of LED lamps
LED lamps are classified according to the following features:
- by application;
- by type of LED;
- by the look of the cap.
LED lamps vary depending on the type and size of the base:
- Edison's Cap , threaded connection, which is denoted by the letter "E". The numbers after the letter in the marking of the base mean its diameter (mm). For example:
- E27 - LED lamp, threaded connection, base diameter 27 mm;
- E14 - LED lamp, threaded connection, base diameter 14 mm.
- Pin base denoted by the letter "G". The second letter indicates certain features in the design of the pin. The numbers after the letter indicate the distance between the pins (contacts) in mm. For example:
- MR16 - LED lamp with a reflector (similar in appearance to halogen lamps), supplied with a base of the size GU 5.3 or G5.3;
- G4 - LED lamp, pin connection, the distance between contacts 4 mm;
- GU10 - LED lamp, pin connection, usually used to illuminate paintings, various elements of the room, as well as to illuminate the interior of the room as a whole, the distance between the contacts is 10 mm.
- Recess Socket , denoted by the letter "R". The number after the letter indicates the depth of the contacts relative to the surface of the base (in mm).
Types and designation of LED lamp socket,photo 1.
Depending on the application, LED lamps are divided into:
- outdoor lamps (outdoor) - for lighting streets, parks, lawns, building facades. These lamps are equipped with increased protection from the environment and mechanical effects,photo 2a ;
- industrial lamps , includingspotlights - for lighting industrial premises, workshops and territorial sites of enterprises,photo 2b. These lamps have high power (up to 1 kW) and luminous efficiency indicator;
- household lamps - for lighting residential premises and offices,photo 2c .
- car lamps .
Photo 1.Varieties of LED lamp socket
Photo 2. Types of LED lamps, depending on the purpose: a) external lighting lamps (street); b) industrial lamps; c) household lamps
By type of device LEDs are divided into:
- SMD ( Surface Mounted Device ) - the most common LEDs,photo 3 . The designation of the LEDs indicates the type (abbreviation in letters) and the size of the LED in mm (4 digits). The most common type of LED SMD: SMD3528 - diode 35 × 28 mm; SMD5050 - 50 × 50 mm diode.
Photo 3. SMD type LEDs: SMD3528 (left) and SMD5050 (right)
- COB ( Chip on Board ) - a new generation of LEDs with an improved structure of the LED, has greater light output,photo 4 .
Photo 4. LED type COB
- high power LEDs designed for industrial lighting,photo 5 . The current consumption of such lamps can be 1 ... 10 A and more (type 5630, 5730) and with a power up to 1 kW.
Photo 5. High Power LEDs
LED lamp consists of such componentsphoto 6 :
- plastic diffuser (diffuser) - This is the upper part of the construction of a special plastic, which evenly scatters the light rays of the lamp;
- LED or LED module (with a large number of LEDs) - the light source. The number of LEDs in a single lamp can reach several dozen. LEDs are mounted on an aluminum mounting plate;
- aluminum pcb (heat-conducting platform), which is designed to remove heat from the chips to the radiator, providing the required temperature level for normal operation of the LEDs. The printed circuit board is installed on thermal paste (special paste with high thermal conductivity);
- aluminum radiator - designed to divert the temperature from the diodes. The normal operation of the radiator is the key to the durability of the lamp, and in particular LEDs;
- IC driver (converter) - A special electrical element that converts and levels alternating current into direct current. The driver allows you to extend the life of the lamp. The power factor of the IC driver (power supply) must be at least 0.9. A good quality driver has protection against power surges, breakdown and overheating.
- base – allows you to establish reliable contact with the lamp device and the source of electricity.
Photo 6. The device LED lamp
Advantages of LED lamps
- Low power consumption (10 or more times less from the power consumption in traditional incandescent lamps).
- Long service life (within 20,000 ... 100,000 hours, this roughly corresponds to 10 ... 40 years of operation). Traditionally, lamp manufacturers give a guarantee - 2 ... 3 years.
- Low heat, compared with incandescent bulbs. In this regard, the bases of the chandeliers and lamps, which are now increasingly made of heat-resistant plastics, have a much greater operational resource (when using incandescent lamps, the socles, as a rule, quickly become fragile and are destroyed by prolonged temperature exposure).
- Resistance to mechanical stress.
- Ecologically safe type of lamps. Does not contain and does not emit mercury vapors and other substances harmful to human health. No need for special disposal of lamps.
- Wide temperature range of lamp operation: -40 ... + 60 ° С.
- Frequent switching on and off of the lamp does not affect its durability.
- Instant warm-up lamp (almost immediately).
- There is no ultraviolet radiation in the light flux of LED lamps.
- High luminous efficiency (more than 5 ... 8 times the normal lamp) - 1 W produces 70 Lm (lumen),photo 7 .
Photo 7. Comparative chart of light output of different types of lamps
- The ability to select the color of the visible radiation of the lamp (the color temperature of the LED),photo 8 . Can choose:
- warm white light, corresponds to the light from an ordinary incandescent lamp (2700 ... 3000 K);
- natural white light (imitation of daylight) - 4000 ... 4400 K;
- cold white light - 6000 ... 6500 K,photo 8a ;
- any color and shade (for decorative lighting),photo 8b .
- The ability to adjust the brightness of the LEDs.
Photo 8. Selecting the color temperature of the LED: a) the scale of the color temperature; b) options for decorative lighting
Disadvantages of LED lamps
- High cost (the recoupment of the LED lamp is 3 ... 5 years).
- In cheap lamps when using cheap elements, in particular capacitors, high-frequency flickering of light can occur. Such flickering can irritate the human retina and lead to eye disease (according to research by Spanish scientists).
- With poor quality of the heat sink, the durability of cheap LED lamps is low.
- The LED shines in almost one direction, the angle of illumination is up to 120 °.
- Over time, the light from the LEDs fades, which is especially characteristic of low-quality lamps.The rate of decrease in the intensity of the light flux depends on the quality of the heat sink.
Below are the comparative parameters of different types of lamps,photo 9.
Photo 9. Comparative parameters of different types of lamps
Tips for choosing a LED lamp for residential lighting
When choosing LED lamps (LED lamps) of optimal quality and characteristics, you should pay attention to the following parameters:
- Parameters of luminous efficiency. The luminous efficiency parameter should be at least 100 Lm / W. Often this parameter is not written on the lamp or box, then it can be determined by simple calculation: the illumination (Lm (lumen)) should be divided by the lamp power, which is given in watts (W).
- Colorful temperature. The color temperature value, which is optimal for the perception of the human eye and should be 4000 K. Also the best solution for children's rooms and lighting in the evening will be lamps with a color temperature close to 3500 K (“soft white light),photo 9 .
- Lamp power. By power, you can also indirectly judge the luminous efficiency of the lamp. There are tables by which it is possible to determine the correspondence between the power of the LED lamp and the lamp injections,photo 10 and based on this, determine what kind of power you should buy an LED lamp. Usually, the luminous efficiency of LED lamps is 8 ... 10 times greater than incandescent lamps.
Photo 10. Comparative table of the luminous efficiency of the power of the LED lamp and other types of lamps
- Verification of heat sink efficiency. As already noted above, good quality LED lamps are equipped with a heat sink, the design of which is made in this way (the presence of fins and spirals), so that the heat is removed to the maximum. It is approximately possible to determine the quality of the heat sink by the temperature of the heating of the housing a short time after the lamp is turned on. Also, the quality check of the lamp and its heat sink can be determined using a special device - luxmeter. If the light meter captures a decrease in the lamp's luminous intensity of more than 10% after 40 minutes after switching on - then such a lamp is of poor quality and equipped with a cheap and inefficient heat sink. Poor quality lamps have a low luminous efficiency and durability. If there is no heat sink in the form of a radiator (when the lamp power is more than 4 ... 10 W and more), there should be no LED lamps.
- Check for pulsation. High-quality LED lamps have a low pulsation rate of the light flux. You can check the degree of pulsation using a regular mobile phone - when you hover your phone’s video camera, no stripes and flickering should appear on the screen.
- Manufacturer. High quality LED lamps are manufactured by manufacturers such as Osram (Germany), CREE (USA), Philips, Seoul Semiconductors (Korea), Nichia. There are also other manufacturers who produce quality products, but you should abandon the purchase of cheap lamps, especially Chinese ones.
In poor quality LED lamps, sapphire is used as part of the LED, which is not a reliable material. Manufacturers of high-quality products in the manufacture of LEDs use silicon carbide.
Guided by these tips, you can buy the best quality lamps that for many years will effectively illuminate your production, home, office and suburban areas.
You can save more electricity by using motion sensors.