Jul 15, 2018
Kyphosis - C-shaped congenital or acquired curvature of the upper spine beyond its normal bending, resulting in the appearance of a hump. Most often there is kyphosis of the thoracic spine, while cases of lumbar and cervical kyphosis are extremely rare. Kyphosis is divided into physiological and pathological.
Physiological sacral and thoracic kyphosis are formed even in early childhood, whereas in adults, the spine bends are fixed. In the elderly, as well as senile age, there is an increase in the thoracic kyphosis.
transition physiological kyphosis occurs in pathological in cases when its value is greater than usual, or whether it is manifested in atypical location( for example, in the lumbar spine).In addition, pathological kyphosis is divided into fixed and non-fixed( functional).Non-fixed kyphosis occurs due to an uncompensated visual deficit( nearsightedness), with sluggish posture, etc. In case of targeted treatment, these defects often pass without a trace. Various diseases of the musculoskeletal system lead to more permanent deformities. Fixed kyphosis, unlike functional, in the horizontal position of the patient does not decrease and does not disappear.
Pathological kyphosis divided into: congenital, caused by a neuromuscular disease, osteohondropaticheskie, kyphosis in systemic diseases of the skeleton, and after an inflammatory disease
Kyphosis - Causes of
reasons spine kyphosis different, on this basis, the following types of kyphosis:
→ Stoop( postural kyphosis of the thoracic) - this is the most mild form of thoracic kyphosis, which is most often caused by poor posture at a young age
→ Deenerativny kyphosis - a more severe form of the disease, the cause of which is considered to be a progressive spinal osteochondrosis, which leads to a reduction of the intervertebral gap and ligamentous apparatus dysfunction. If degenerative kyphosis accompanied by a pinched nerve endings of the spinal cord, the pathology is known as compression of the spine kyphosis kyphosis
is acquired, congenital, vozniknuvshey due to the surgery( postoperative kyphosis), or injury( posttraumatic kyphosis).Congenital kyphosis of the spine arises both because of heredity, and because of an anomaly in the development of the vertebrae.
Besides this, the following reasons for the development of kyphosis are noted: muscle weakness of the back, paralysis of the back, age-related changes in age, tuberculosis, rickets. Clinical
→ Gipokifoz - curving angle of about 15 °
→ Normokifoz - the angle of curvature from 15 to 50 °
→ hyperkyphosis - curving angle exceeds 50 °
Kyphosis refers to the number of dangerous and sometimes deadly diseases. From the outside it seems that in the stoop of man there is nothing special, and even more dangerous. Unfortunately, it is not. In the spinal column of the person is located the spinal cord, from which practically all parts and parts of the human body are separated by nerve roots( bundles).Kyphosis leads to their infringement, which is often expressed by progressive weakness in the lower limbs, up to the absolute impossibility of independent movement. In addition, the openings of processes of the cervical vertebrae are supplying blood to the cerebellum, occipital lobe and brain stem vertebral artery clamping which when expressed kyphosis leads to a violation of cerebral circulation and the development of later stroke, which often results in death of the patient
symptoms of thoracic kyphosisIs manifested by a posterior convexity, with a deviation angle of more than 45˚ and is detected by visual inspection of the patient. If there is a convexity less than this value, the deviation is considered normal and the diagnosis is that the kyphosis of the thoracic spine is not exposed.
Thoracic kyphosis is manifested by characteristic painful muscular spasms of the back, which are observed in the area of kyphotic curvature. Sometimes kyphosis of the thoracic spine can be added to this type of kyphosis( numbness and weakness in the limbs).With a complicated form of thoracic kyphosis, there are violations of the heart, breathing and digestion.
In the absence of treatment, progressive kyphosis from a serious stoop goes into a hunchback, which not only fundamentally changes the appearance of a person, but also significantly narrows the chest, the diaphragm then descends, the ribs become less flexible, and respiratory movements become very difficult. As a result of these anatomical changes in the chest, the respiratory function of the lungs disrupts, which in turn very often leads to the development of stagnant phenomena in the lungs( difficulty breathing, cyanosis of the fingertips and lips) and respiratory failure.
A person with a developed hump lives relatively briefly, as his heart changes its original position and works much lower than its capabilities, and its weakened lungs are constantly exposed to various inflammatory processes. Due to all of the above, the patient dies of cardiovascular and respiratory failure.
With kyphosis in the initial stage, the formed deformation allows the patient to lead a sufficiently full life. The person has periodic pain in the neck and back, as well as weakness in the lower extremities with a violation of their skin sensitivity. In the case of further progression of the curvature of the spine, the limitation of respiratory function of the lungs, incontinence of faeces and urine, as well as disorders of the genital area are added to the above symptoms.
Types of pathological kyphosis:
- Congenital kyphosis. This is caused by a genetic mutation and inherited defect in the development of vertebral bodies( anterior regions)
- Postural kyphosis. This type of curvature of the spine develops due to incorrect posture( "rounded back") and is most often observed in adolescents, leaking in conjunction with excessive bending forward( lumbar hyperlordosis)
- Posttraumatic kyphosis. It develops as a result of spinal injuries with compression fracture of the vertebral bodies and compression of the roots of the spinal cord
- Secondary kyphosis. This disorder develops against the background of an infectious disease( poliomyelitis, tuberculosis spondylitis) or systemic( Bechterew's disease, rickets, cerebral palsy, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma)
- Senile( degenerative) kyphosis. This type of curvature is caused by dystrophic changes in the bodies of the vertebrae and intervertebral discs, which are accompanied by the so-called "sagging of the spine", as well as the weakening of its ligamentous apparatus
- Sheyerman-Mau disease. The cause of the development of this pathology has not been established to date. It is known that this disease in the overwhelming majority of cases develops in adolescents in the age interval from thirteen to sixteen years and is manifested by thinning of the anterior part of the vertebral bodies approximately in the middle of the spinal column, which leads to a characteristic tilt forward in the thoracic department
Diagnosis of the disease
Even kyphosis in the initialStage can be easily visualized without much difficulty. All that is necessary for this is to ask the patient to lean forward and carefully look from the side to the spine, since it is with this position of the body that the presence of any curvature of the upper back can be easily detected visually. However, this method can only be considered a preliminary diagnosis. Finally, the degree of kyphosis is established exclusively by means of computed tomography and radiography. In addition, a neurological examination is performed to determine the state of muscle reflexes and the absence or presence of skin sensitivity disorders. The lung function is studied by spirometry. For the detection of pathological changes in the nerve roots and spinal cord, MRI
is shown. Kyphosis - treatment of
. Light forms, as well as postural kyphosis, are well suited to conservative treatment with manual therapy and physiotherapy exercises, and therapeutic exercises with kyphosis are indispensable in any case. It allows you to reduce pain to a minimum, to correct the posture and strengthen the muscles of the back.
In case of severe pain, the use of various groups of analgesics, more often non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( ketorol, etc.), which allow not only to get rid of compulsive pains, but also reduce inflammatory damage. These medications are indicated to be taken as prescribed by the doctor on a daily basis, and not at times of painful attacks.
Among the most advanced methods of treatment of diseases of the spine is manual therapy. With kyphosis, this type of treatment can give a positive result only at the initial stage, and only if the treatment is performed by a properly trained specialist. In case the patient is in the hands of an amateur, there is a great risk of getting a displacement of the vertebrae, which will lead to a number of serious complications. The manual effect on the problem part of the spine is carried out with an obligatory interval of two to three days.
With the development of hyperkiphosis, the only method of treatment is surgical intervention, during which the defect is eliminated and the spinal column stabilizes with special titanium plates, rods and screws, which are fixed on vertebral bodies using a special technique. After a certain time, all foreign objects from the spine are removed. The postoperative effect lasts for about five to six years.
Prevention of kyphosis
Preventative measures for the development of kyphosis include simple rules aimed at eliminating the causes of this disease and include:
- Regular physical activity( for adults - fitness, for the elderly- morning gymnastics)
- Children and teenagers are recommended to wear contact lenses or
glasses if vision is impaired - If a person is mostly sedentary, In order to maintain a normal muscle tone, he is recommended to stand at least once every hour and perform simple gymnastic exercises.
- In case the child slouches due to hampering his high growth, it is necessary to hold an explanatory conversation with him, or contact the child psychologist
Be aware that the height of the chair and table must necessarily correspond to the height of the person. If you have to tilt while working, reading, or eating - you need to change furniture
. At the initial stage of kyphosis formation, special corsets are shown to ensure the correct position of the chin, shoulders and back. The duration of their daytime socks is determined by the doctor purely individually, based on the symptoms and degree of kyphosis.