Installation of fire doors: SNiP and installation stages
Installation of door structures is usually doneaccording to the typical scheme with certain and most often insignificant deviations from the general installation technology. The variety of doors is huge, so it's logical that in each case there will be some nuances. And especially this applies to special models designed to perform special tasks of isolation and protection. These include fire doors, the metal structures of which, though implemented by the standard scheme, but also provide for a number of additional operations. In addition, in the implementation of such work, it is necessary to harmonize legal aspects, since fire safety designs place a high responsibility in terms of ensuring security.
Do you need a license to install?
The fact that the technical organization and, inIn particular, installation of fire safety means should be handled by authorized specialists, known to all. But in this case, when analyzing the technical requirements for fire safety and the article of the law on licensing, many also find a lot of contradictions - for example, in the procedures for providing this document. But it's worth starting with the first question, which is especially of interest to private traders planning to install a fire door - do you need a license in principle? Yes, it is required, only those who have the appropriate permission can proceed with the installation. As for obtaining a license, it is provided in the departments of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. But for this it is necessary to pass the appropriate training course, provide information about the equipment available and, in some cases, pay a state fee, the amount of which will depend on the region.
SNiP requirements for installation
First of all, the requirements forused materials. Although metal structures are most often used, sometimes wooden and glass counterparts can be used in conditions of inadmissibility of heavy construction. Another thing is that in each case the basis should have a flammability class not lower than G3. The dimensions of the canvas should also be kept in mind - it depends on them how long the installation of fire doors will be. SNiP in this case indicate that the thickness should not be less than 4 mm, and the remaining parameters are adjusted under the opening individually.
Further, the design requirements are also fixed,for which the installation will be carried out. For example, the doors should open only towards the exit. Sometimes the use of permanently open cloths is allowed, but in this case the automatic shutter mechanism must still be integrated if an ignition occurs. Accordingly, the installation of fire doors with closers and drives should also assume the installation of a backup power system.
Preparing for installation
Preparatory operations can be divided into threemain groups: ordering and fitting the fabric, forming a box and cleaning the mounting surfaces of the opening itself. As for the canvas, most often it is ordered according to the individual project in accordance with the declared sizes - while the deviation in the parameters should not exceed 5 mm. Next is the creation of a box, which is mounted with the help of small heat-resistant hardware and corners. The fittings are selected depending on which scheme the fire doors will be installed in - whether it will have a drive, auxiliary protective elements or other functional devices. The final stage of preparation involves working with the opening. The joints with the door box must be carefully cleaned - the paint, puttying and other coatings that can support the combustion or have insufficient reliability of adhesion to the substrate are eliminated.
Direct mounting consists of the following stages:
- Integration of the box in the opening. The block is embedded and fixed by means of a rigid attachment to the brackets or even reinforcing pieces that are welded. The main thing is to keep the symmetry of gaps from different sides.
- The next stage is the installation of the blade. It is fixed to the box using anchors and bolts, but with the possibility of adjusting the position.
- Hinges, locks and other auxiliary fittings are installed.
Not in all cases, but, for example, onproduction facilities requirements for the installation of fireproof doors provide for the strengthening of the box wedges. As for the strengthening of fire protection, insulating heat-resistant coatings, thin panels and even sputtering can be used.
Where is the use of the fire door justified?
It would seem that in additional protection from fireThere is always meaning. Even if there is no high threat, it will not be superfluous to guard against it. And yet such doors are not as easy to use as conventional metal ones. They are heavy, sluggish and require more space for installation. Therefore, in most cases, installation of fire doors is carried out where it is really necessary. In warehouses, industrial facilities, production facilities, chemical laboratories, terminals, etc. One can justify such a decision in a private house, but this requires a good reason - for example, if flammable building materials or other products without refractory properties are constantly stored.
Fighting fire is a responsible and difficultan event, the success of which largely depends on what means were prepared for him in advance. Windows, barriers, partitions and doors play a key role in this respect. Especially important is the quality of installation of protective structures, during which the fire doors are installed. Metal or heat-resistant glass cloths alone can keep the fire out of circulation for a long time, but for complete safety it is necessary to think over and protect the fittings. It is desirable that all accessories are made of non-combustible materials, and if necessary, further protected and heat-resistant coatings.