How to make a warm floor on the balcony and loggia: the choice of heating system + installation instructions
As a source of thermal energy for the loggia, various heating systems are used, which are mounted mainly in the floor. They allow you to maintain the preferred temperature regime, to form the most favorable conditions.
Competently arranged warm floor on the balcony is able to generate the required amount of heat.
Heating systems for loggias
There are several types of heating systems that are installed in the floor, and are used to insulate the balcony and loggia.
- heating mats;
- heating cable;
- infrared shielded film.
Consider the system in more detail.
Heating mats and their types
One of the most popular and budgetary systems are heating mats. They themselves represent a single heating cable, wave-mounted to a special mesh of durable fiberglass. The devices belong to the class of systems with cable heating, their installation is carried out exclusively in the floor.
A single or two-core cable acts as a heat source. Its diameter varies in the range of 2.5-4.5 mm. For mats need a power source of 220-230 watts.
The cable is protected by a special plastic screen. The length of the cold wire usually exceeds 2 m.
Manufactured by the industry heating mats are divided into two groups. They are divided by cable type into:
- single cores;
The peculiarity of mats with single-core cable is that they must be laid so that the two ends are connected to the thermostat. This greatly complicates the installation, since it requires the cutting of mats.Also, a mat with a single-conductor cable emits an electromagnetic field, so it is not embedded in rooms where people are constantly located.
Strong mat - an improved version of single-core. Here, besides the heating conductor, there is an electrical cable. Its introduction into the design allows one end to be connected to the thermostat, and the other to be hidden in the clutch, which makes it possible to complete the installation at any place.
The mat of the strong type practically does not radiate the electromagnetic field, therefore it is completely safe for humans. It can be installed not only on the balcony floor, but also in any other room as a source of additional heat.
Heating mats also differ in power, they can generate from 60 to 2300 W of energy. How to calculate the required power of the mat, you can read below.
Both single and double mat mats are reliable and can serve flawlessly for many years. Usually, single-core modifications are thinner than strong ones, they have greater power, and therefore are able to warm up the floor surface faster.
Pros and cons of heating mats
Consider the features, advantages and disadvantages of heating mats.
- When using mats, the height of the room is reduced by only a couple of centimeters, taking into account the height of the tile and the layer of glue.
- The system is economical, rationally consumes electricity. If there is furniture on the balcony, then under it the mats do not fit.
- Heating mats are easy to install. The only thing that can cause complexity is the connection of the system to the thermostat.
- Heating mats are used for a short time. They are not designed for permanent round-the-clock work.
Over the mats can be applied tile adhesive composition and lay the tile itself. The choice of the device takes into account the area of the heating surface, heat loss loggia. For installation on the balcony it is undesirable to take a long mat, because the device can not be shortened. It is possible to reduce only the cold ends, so for the balcony you need to choose a device that most closely matches the floor area.
Installation of heating mats
Installation of heating mats must be carried out with care. It is important to protect the cable from mechanical damage. It is unacceptable to use cutting and sharp objects during installation, to leave them unattended.
It is also important to try not to step on the cable. To eliminate the likelihood of this incident, it is advisable to install in shoes with a soft sole or without shoes, and before installation, completely clean the floor surface from dirt.
Care should be taken when fixing tiles, applying glue and stripping seams. During this work, you may accidentally damage the cable.
The device of the floor heating system with the use of heating mats includes a number of traditional steps:
Consider the options for laying mats on different types of surfaces.
First install a heat-insulating material on the concrete floor of the loggia, then level the floor, install a shock absorber, which will prevent deformation when heated. Then a mat is placed on the shock absorber, and then covered with tile glue, on which tile is laid. At the last stage, the protective tube is mounted for a temperature sensor, a thermostat, and cold wires are connected.
If the floor is laid out of wood on the balcony, the surface is first aligned with a concrete layer of 7-9 mm, then the heating mats are laid, solid foam is put, and then the floor is covered with wood.
If the installation is made on an old tiled floor, then make a concrete tie, install the heating element, cover it with tile glue, and then create a new tiled floor. If the floor tile was in good condition, then the leveling screed can not do.
Consider the features of installation in more detail.
Before introducing mats into the floor surface, it is necessary to make a schematic installation plan. It should be applied to:
- contour of the heated surface;
- laying scheme;
- provide for the location of the temperature sensor, temperature controller, taking into account the location of the power wiring.
It is important to prepare the surface for laying mats before starting work. To do this, eliminate cracks on the floor with a putty. After it dries, the floor is cleaned from dust, dirt. If the surface is wooden, you must ensure that it is securely fixed.
Before laying you need to install the groove for the tube that comes with the temperature sensor. It is important that it is located at the level of the upper edge of the product at the same distance from the heating cables. During the work, it is necessary to glue the tube on one side with tape so that tiled glue does not get into it. The second end is connected to the thermostat itself, which is located in the junction box.
Laying can be done in two ways - cable up or cable down. The first method is the simplest, it is used in practice most often.
The way in which the installation is made cable up,is that the mats are laid grid down. Further, with the use of glue, the device is point-mounted to the floor surface. After on the surface of the mat impose tile glue of the required thickness (usually 3-5 mm), after which the tile is settled.
The cable must be completely immersed in a heat-conducting medium (tile adhesive, etc.).
The method in which the cable is laid with the cable down (i.e., mesh up) is more complex in design. Before laying the tile is made pattern mat. To do this, spread it so that it completely covers the heated surface. Next, cut the grid mat, then roll up into a roll. A layer of glue of 2-3 mm is applied on the floor, after it the mat is turned down with a cable and pressed down slightly.
During laying it is important to ensure that the distance between the cables is not less than 5 cm. The second 5-6 mm layer of glue is applied with a notched trowel directly onto the heating mat, after which the tile is laid.
Electric heating cable
At the heart of any system warm floor is heating electrical cable. It acts as the main heating element. Management takes place with the help of electronic thermostats of various modifications. For the operation of the device, a voltage of 220 V is necessary.
The cable system includes a cable heating section, its main element is a two-core screened cable, which is connected on one side by a supply conductor protected by a coupling, and on the other by a heating conductor.
The specific heat dissipation of the cable is approximately 18 W / m.
The advantages of the cable are as follows:
- the electromagnetic field created by the device, the cavity is safe for humans;
- due to the use of a small power in the construction of the heating conductor, the wear resistance of the cable and its service life are increased;
- ease of installation;
- The shielding film provides electrical, fire safety of the product, protects it from mechanical damage.
Installation on a concrete floor has a number of features. It is advisable to insulate it with a 20-50-mm-thick layer of expanded polystyrene or any other insulating material. Next, you need to cover the insulation with a concrete coupler 10-15 mm. This will prevent contact of the heater with the heating element of the floor, otherwise the device may overheat.
After the procedure, the mounting tape is laid on the floor and fixed. The cable is laid uniformly wavy throughout the area. It is important that its nodes do not overlap. The bending radius must be equal to or more than 10 times the cable diameter. Fix the device with mounting tape, attaching protruding parts with it.
After installation, check the compliance of the real resistance of the heating conductor with the information in the passport.You can connect the cable before installation to test its performance, and then lay and tie. Couplings shall be located in the concrete screed. Before the device of a coupler make the scheme of laying of a cable where define places for an arrangement of connecting couplings.
It is important to remember that the cement screed finally hardens after 28-30 days. Until that time, the system cannot be switched on. It is also forbidden to run sections of the heating cable that are in the collapsed position. Stacking step should be calculated on the passport.
In detail with the steps of laying the heating cable on the floor of the loggia, a brief photo-instruction will introduce
Infrared film for heating
The principle of operation of the infrared film is based on the generation of long-wave infrared rays. The device itself has the appearance of a web covered on both sides with a polyester film.It is flexible, making it easy to mount on any part of the floor. Embedding does not require pouring a cement screed or making a glue base; the film can be easily installed and removed.
The film is a kind of emitter of infrared rays, which a person interprets as heat. Its maximum heating temperature is +50 degrees.
Any IR film consists of:
- heating carbon element, which is a converter of electricity into heat;
- bimetallic tires, through which energy is supplied to the heating elements;
- the two-layer polymeric film which is carrying out functions of protection against mechanical damages.
The device works from an electrical network of 220-230 V.
The current passing through the components of the system is converted into heat energy, it is transferred to the environment, which then heats the air mass around it.
Types of infrared films
There is a large variety of IR films, differing in specific technical parameters and appearance. There are two main types - low-and high-temperature models. Films also differ in power, limiting heating temperature, thickness, width, areas of application.
The installation of a continuous carbon film used as the main heating system of an equipped loggia is quite simple:
When choosing a film, the key parameter is the temperature of its heating. So, if it exceeds +27 degrees, then the laminated coating should be discarded, since it is irreversibly deformed when exposed to high temperature. Therefore, high-temperature modifications should be laid only under ceramic tiles.
In the loggia, you can install a warm infrared film on the floor and on the walls and ceiling. Additionally, the panels are mounted on both walls under the windows, opposite the windows.
When choosing a film, it is important to focus on its area of application.
Powerful advantages of IR film
Experts identify a number of advantages of IR film. Among them:
- environmental safety - radiation is considered beneficial to health;
- during the operation of the device, it is not the air that is heated, but the interior, therefore oxygen does not evaporate, the composition of the air does not change;
- no electromagnetic radiation;
- simplicity in installation, ample opportunities in control.
IR film is durable, practically does not fail and does not require repair.
Infrared film systems are excellent for outdoor use. They are actively used in the arrangement of balconies and loggias.The weighty advantage of infrared floors is that this is the only option that allows you to effectively heat the room without glazing.
The process of arranging an IR system on the balcony floor will be presented by the following gallery:
Temperature Sensor Mounting
To provide a necessary microclimate indoors, use temperature regulators equipped with a temperature sensor. They effectively interact with cable systems, IR film. The functions of the thermostat include maintaining the desired temperature, its adjustment, optimization of energy consumption. Depending on the modification, the functions of the device can be varied.
The principle of connecting the thermostat is the same for any system. We will consider the features of mounting the temperature sensor for heating mats.
If the total capacity of the mats is greater, then for the installation of the thermostat, additional equipment is required in the form of an input automat, a RCD, a power relay, a circuit breaker in directions, a special thermostat.
To install the regulator, you must perform the work in the following order:
- create a special hole in the wall for mounting the box;
- build a recess in the wall to install the power wire and create a hole for laying the connecting channel;
- install, configure according to the instructions;
- Place the sensors in a corrugated plastic tube with a diameter of 16-20 mm.
The tube must be sealed at one end to protect the wires from ingress of solutions, water. At the opposite end of the tube is placed in an installed box.
The permissible bending radius of the wiring is at least 5 cm. The tube with sensors is attached to the floor.She is obliged to enter between the loops at a distance of at least 20 cm.
It is important to remember that during installation it is impossible to shorten the heating cable, to replace the lead wires, to make corrections to the design of the thermostat, to carry out repair and installation work with the supply voltage on.
The principle of calculation of floor systems
Before choosing any floor system, it is important to calculate the power of the heater, determine its required length.
To do this, calculate the heat loss loggia. A lot of heat energy comes out through the window openings, therefore it is quite problematic to provide a temperature of + 20- + 23 degrees, especially in the winter season. Therefore, it is recommended to install heating equipment in heating mode.
You can calculate the heat loss of a balcony using an online calculator.
The recommended temperature of heating mats, cable or IR film is +26 degrees. This mode is suitable for insulating parquet floor. If tile, marble or another heat-conducting coating is used as a coating, the recommended cable temperature is + 28- + 31 degrees.
Usually for loggias you need 160-180 W per m2on heating and 200-220 W per m2for heating mode. Considering these recommendations, it is possible to calculate the required cable length, installation step, system capacity.
For example, a loggia has an area of 2 m.2. The flooring is a tile, the screed is not planned. Take the heating mode, which requires 200 watts per meter2. Next, we define the heating area. It is calculated by the formula:
Here setc- the area occupied by cabinets and other furniture. Suppose the area occupied by the furniture is 0.5 m.2. Then
For the loggia, the heating mode is selected, so the required cable power is 200 W per m2.
Then the recommended power of the system is 1.5 * 200 = 300 W per m2.
If the screed is not planned, choose a thin cable system that is able to fully fit into the layer of tile adhesive.
It is possible to choose a system with the required characteristics according to the tables describing the characteristics of the equipment.
Based on the table, the area determines the thickness of the mat, its dimensions and length. In our example, the power of the mat is 0.25 kW, and the length is 17 m.
Next, look for the installation step.We calculate it by the formula:
h = (sgr* 100) / Lcab
- h is the laying step;
- Lcab- cable length in meters.
Substitute the values in the formula, and we get:
h = 1.5 * 100 \ 17 = 8.8 cm
When laying mats or cable, remember that the distance from the walls should be 10 cm.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video tells about the features, general principles of installation of heating mats:
From the video you can learn about the features of installation and connection of the thermostat:
On the installation of IR film can be found in the video below:
Cable systems, infrared film are of high quality, low cost, practicality and durability. You can install them yourself without the involvement of specialists. It is only important to choose the right equipment taking into account the heated surface area, type of coating and other factors.