How to make a septic tank?
Very often the owners of country houses and cottagesare faced with such a need as wastewater disposal. And it is not always possible to purchase expensive equipment, and the cesspool is not the best way to solve this problem. But from this situation there is an affordable and simple way out, which consists in manufacturing a self-made septic tank. Of course, not everyone knows how to do a septic tank with their own hands, so you should consider this process in detail.
Basics of septic design
First, it should be noted that it is correctdesigned, as well as a properly manufactured septic tank does not produce an unpleasant odor, and also copes well with its direct task. In addition, such a septic tank, unlike various biological treatment systems, does not need any additional sources of energy and has a manufacturing cost much lower than the purchase and installation of ready-made solutions. In order for septic work to be effective, its design must necessarily include a minimum of two chambers, and at the same time used tanks should be hermetic. In addition, the material from which these tanks are made, must be reliable, very durable and not subject to corrosion.
Types of septic tanks
There are basically two types of elementary septic tanks. They can easily be produced independently. These types include surface and underground septic tanks. At the same time, it is easier to make the septic tank for the dacha with the help of the first kind. However, it should be noted that it has lower productivity and is highly dependent on the groundwater table. Such a septic tank is best suited for dachas, which are used only in the warm season, or for a small private house, where no more than three people live. As for the septic tank of the underground type, it is the most effective and reliable, rather than superficial. At the same time, its manufacturing cost is slightly higher, but it can be used year-round. It should be noted that the underground septic tank can easily cope with significant volumes of wastewater, which means it is designed for a large number of residents. The design of this type of septic tank consists of several tanks, if necessary, their number can be increased and thereby achieving even greater productivity. Let's consider in more detail how to build a septic tank, as well as clarify the features of their design.
How to make a surface septic tank
It should be noted that the reservoir of this type of septic tankcan be made of metal, concrete or plastic. But you can also use brick or other block building materials. In this case, it will be necessary to provide a good waterproofing to the inner surface. As for the bottom of the tank, it can be at the soil level, or, if the groundwater table is not very high, be deepened by several dozen centimeters. The dimensions of the tank should be at least 1.5 x 2 meters, and its height is 50-70 centimeters. Then, the sewer and drain pipes must be inserted. It should be noted that the level of the drain must be several centimeters lower than the neck of the inlet pipe. Draining into a trench or aeration well. Also you need to take care of the ventilation duct. It should look like a vertical pipe having a height of at least 4 meters. It is necessary to exclude the possibility of an unpleasant smell. The tank itself, as a rule, is made of metal sheets. And to ensure tightness, it is necessary to silicone silicone on the outside and inside all welds. The lid can be made of absolutely any material. Most importantly, it should not let unpleasant odors out. In addition to the reservoir itself, it is necessary to provide high-quality soil filtration. To do this, you need to make a well or aeration trench.
How to build an underground septic tank
So, now consider how to make a septic tankunderground type. For its manufacture, you can use ready-made metal or plastic containers, the volume of which exceeds 700 liters. The most commonly used are conventional steel barrels of machine oil. In each tank, you must perform a drain, the inlet, and also the ventilation duct. They are made according to the same scheme as in the reservoir of the surface septic tank. Then they are buried in the ground. It is important to ensure that the drain of the first reservoir is higher than the inlet of the next tank. With the aid of silicone or epoxy resin, all pipe joints must be carefully sealed. In addition, the pipes themselves should be insulated with mineral wool. It is also desirable to insulate the tanks. To do this, you can use foam or any other material. So, how to install a septic tank figured out, now you need to figure out how to avoid getting into the septic tank of groundwater. To cope with this task, it is necessary to put a non-return valve at the outlet. It should also be borne in mind that the height of the ventilation ducts should be 4 meters. But with the use of modern biologics, perfectly neutralizing odors, the height can be reduced to 2 meters. To ensure the most efficient process of decomposition of faeces, as well as the creation in the first tank of suitable conditions for life and reproduction, necessary for this process of bacteria, it is necessary to bring plums out of the sink and the bathroom immediately to the second tank. If you want to increase the productivity and efficiency of the underground septic tank, you simply need to add additional tanks. Having considered how to properly make a septic tank of surface and underground species, it should be noted that the least expensive and simple is the surface septic tank. It is he who enjoys the most popularity among summer residents. Of course, you can buy a cheap factory septic tank, but, unlikely, it will be able to serve you for a long time.
Safety of operation
When installing any septic tank, one should takefactor, as the danger of contamination of soil and groundwater by the products of waste decomposition. If the water is taken from a well, a well, an open reservoir or a small river at a dacha or in a private house, it is worthwhile to carefully consider the isolation of the septic tank from the ground. After all, if the septic tank is not closed properly during hurricanes and heavy rains, there is a danger of overflow, causing some of the waste to enter the ground and underground waters. Another danger that awaits the owners of underground septic tanks is the corrosion of the walls of the tanks, especially in the case of barrels of paint or oil. They can rust through for 4-5 years and allow leakage. Such containers before dipping into the ground it is desirable to paint and pour bitumen from the outside.