How is milk made?
Nature, gives us invaluable useful and necessaryproduct - milk. But, as milk is made, and what this process is, you now need to find out. Milk consists of fats, proteins, carbohydrates and mineral salts. In milk contain almost all the necessary vitamins and microelements. But one significant drawback of this product is - milk quickly deteriorates. This is easily explained by the fact that microorganisms, getting into milk, an excellent nutrient medium for them, begin to multiply rapidly. To prevent this, the milk is subject to special treatment.
Usually, at home, milk is boiled. But at the same time, all the useful components of milk, are amenable to irreversible changes. Usually, at dairies, it does not. Milk heats up to 70-90 degrees a short time, and is aged at this temperature. As a result, harmful bacteria die, and valuable components of milk remain unchanged. This method of treatment for the first time, suggested the French scientist Louis Pasteur, after whom this method was called pasteurization. Well, now, about each stage of making milk is more detailed. Tell you how to make milk in production.
Each batch of milk that goes to the plant,strictly controlled. Reception and evaluation of the quality of milk usually begin with inspection of the packaging in which it was brought. Then an organoleptic check of milk is made, that is, milk is tested for odor, color, consistency and taste. Soon a small part of the milk is taken away, for the purpose of analyzing it in the laboratory, to establish its composition and the bacterial medium located in the milk. When the analysis is ready and the test is positive, the milk is sorted.
To purify milk from mechanical impurities,Special filters are used which have a different design. Also, a different kind of filtration material is used - filters made of cotton wool, gauze or lintan fabric.
The most advanced and high-quality methodcleaning of milk, is considered a separatory method. That is, simply put, the milk is placed in a special drum - a centrifuge, which rotates at a certain speed. During rotation, foreign particles that have a greater density than the density of the plasma particles of milk settle on the walls of the centrifuge. In the process of such an operation, the smallest particles of contamination, including even bacterial origin, are removed. After the purification step, the milk very quickly cools down to a low temperature, in order to avoid the growth of microflora.
The process of separating milk is used to divide a portion of milk into cream - a fatty product, and skim milk. This process takes place with the help of a special separator - a cream separator.
Such a process as normalization, is used forthe regulation of the chemical composition of milk to the norm, that is, up to the standards and technical conditions set. The percentage of fat in milk, dry substances, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals are taken into account. Most of all, normalization is carried out by mass, percentage of fats in milk.
Homogenization, carried out for cream and milkmixture. This is the process of crushing fat balls, when the product has a significant external force, that is, the product is given a uniform shape and consistency.
If you once heard the word pasteurization andyou understand what it means, then, as milk is made, it will be easy for you to understand, because these two processes are directly interrelated. But closer to the point. Typically, pasteurization is carried out at temperatures lower than the boiling point. This is 65-90 degrees Celsius. The goal for pasteurization is as follows:
- Destroy the pathogenic microflora, and get a product safe for the consumer, in relation to sanitation and hygiene standards.
- Reduce the level of bacterial contamination of milk, destroy the enzymes of the raw product, which can cause spoilage of pasteurized milk, reducing its resistance and shelf life.
- Change the physico-chemical properties of milk, to obtain the prescribed standards of the finished product. This, as a rule, organoleptic properties - the viscosity and density of the product.
Industrial pasteurization is athe process of processing milk at a temperature of 75-77 degrees, with an exposure of about 20 seconds, which can fully ensure hygienic reliability and the destruction of harmful bacteria, while preserving the nutritional and biological value of milk.
To know how to make milk, you need to know aboutThe process of sterilization, which is used for the manufacture of a hygienic and sanitary-safe product, and for the duration of its storage without changing any qualities.
Of the most cost-effective and reliablemethods of sterilization, the production of milk uses a thermal method. The essence of the method is the processing of milk at high temperatures, over one hundred degrees, with aging, in order to destroy all the spores and bacteria in the milk. Also for deactivation of enzymes, with minimal loss of taste qualities in the finished product. Thus, the finished product can be stored for about a year, but under the condition of tightness of the container. The most commonly used method is heat treatment of milk in a temperature flow of 135-155 degrees, with a few seconds holding, followed by packing it in aseptic conditions in a sterile package.
Sterilized milk, though longer to be stored,than pasteurized, but in taste qualities inferior to it. How do milk in our plants, you already understood, basically, it is absolutely the same process at all plants, using the same technologies and processing processes.