Establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and the USA: features, history and consequences
After the Revolution of 1917 America refused to recognize the government of the Soviets. The establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and the United States began thanks to trade ties that were formed by the 1930s. Representatives of American business circles played a significant role in the normalization of interaction. They were primarily interested in establishing economic ties.
The history of diplomatic relations between the USSR (Russia) and the USA
In 1933, on October 10, the President of America, F. Roosevelt sent a message to M. Kalinin, who at that time held the post of chairman of the CEC. The message suggested to restore diplomatic relations. Between the USSR and the United States at that time there were certain disagreements that both sides sought to overcome. Kalinin replied to Roosevelt on October 17. Already in mid-November 1933 Maxim Litvinov, who was the Foreign Affairs Commissioner, and the President of America exchanged official notes. From that moment diplomatic relations between the USSR and the USA began to be formed. The history of their development at the initial stages testifies to the quite friendly atmosphere between the countries. As the first Soviet ambassador appointed Alexander Troyanovsky. At that time he was a fairly well-known statesman. From America, the first ambassador was William Bullitt. Two years later, in 1935, on July 13, a Trade Agreement was signed between the countries. In 1937, on August 4, the countries signed an agreement on granting each other a regime of maximum economic favor.
During the Great Patriotic War the Soviet Union andAmerica cooperated quite actively, being members of the Anti-Hitler Coalition. Almost immediately after the fascists attack, the US decided to provide economic support to the USSR. During the fighting, America carried out deliveries on lend-lease (on a lease basis). Official negotiations for assistance began in late September 1941, Roosevelt sent Harriman (his representative) to Moscow. On October 1, a protocol was signed on the first deliveries to the Soviet Union for 49 months. $ 1 billion dollars. A week later, Roosevelt signed a document, according to which the Lend-Lease extended to the USSR. In October 1941 the first deliveries began. In early June 1944, the Anglo-American naval and airborne assault was transferred to Normandy. So the second front was formed. At the end of April 1945, the offices of the 58th Gov. the infantry division of the First Ukrainian Front and the 69th Infantry Division of US military forces met on the river. Elbe near Torgau. The establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and the US was of key importance in resolving issues relating to the direct conduct of battles, as well as the post-war arrangement in the world. During the last years of the Great Patriotic War, three conferences were held between the heads of the USSR, the USA and Britain (Tehran in November 1943, Yalta in November 1945, Potsdam in July-August 1945).
The Cold War
Despite the fact that the establishment between the USSR and the United Statesdiplomatic relations was important for both states, after the war the world was actually split into spheres of influence of two blocs with different socio-political regimes. The time of the Cold War began. This period lasted almost 40 years. During this time, a NATO and ATS unit (the organization of the Warsaw Pact countries) was formed. Diplomatic relations between the USSR and the US have reached a dead end. The beginning of competition for spheres of influence inevitably led to the expansion of the military-strategic complex in each state. The arms race began. As a result, the economy of both units turned out to be extremely tense.
It is considered the most dramatic period sincethe moment when for the first time the US established diplomatic relations with the USSR. The Caribbean crisis arose in October 1962. At that time, the Soviet Union deployed its ballistic missiles in Cuba. This was the response to similar steps taken earlier by America. The United States installed missiles in Italy and Turkey. In addition, Cuba was threatened by the invasion of the US military. As a response, the Soviet leadership led its forces to combat readiness. The Caribbean crisis not only jeopardized the further establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and the US, but also created the danger of a nuclear war. However, the way out of the situation was found by the joint efforts of Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy. The emerging crisis forced the leaders of the countries to recognize that the confrontation of states can lead to the death of all mankind. Having reached the peak, the Cold War gradually declined. The leaders of the two countries began to talk about the limitations of building up the military potential.
The period of political detente
Diplomatic relations between the USSR and the West have becomegradually recover. By the end of the 1960s. several important treaties were signed. In particular, a memorandum on direct communication between the Kremlin and the White House (1963), the Agreement on the Prohibition of Nuclear Tests in Outer Space, on Land and Under Water (1963), On the Principles of the Activities of Countries in Research and Use celestial bodies (including the Moon), the cosmos "(1967)," On the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons "(1968). In the 1970s. Several more meetings were held. In the course of them, the countries adopted bilateral commitments relating to the prevention of nuclear war, disarmament and the limitation of strategic weapons. Thus, in 1971 an agreement was signed on measures to reduce the threat of war between the USSR and the United States. The following year, the states signed the ABM Treaty and the SALT-1 Interim Document. In 1974, an agreement was signed on measures to reduce underground nuclear tests and SALT-2. In July 1975, within the framework of the international space program, the spacecraft Soyuz and Apollo were docked. This was the first large-scale event of Soviet-American cooperation.
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment
It was adopted in one year with the signing of SALT-2 -in 1974. The amendment applied to the US law "On Trade". It envisaged a ban on granting the maximum favored state regime, state loans and guarantees to countries in which the rights of citizens to emigration are severely restricted or violated. First of all, this rule applied to the USSR. In the Soviet Union in those years, there was a restriction on emigration from the country. After 1985, when they were removed and missing until now, the amendment lost its significance. However, officially it was not canceled.
They were introduced by the US in relation to the USSR in connection withthe deployment of troops on the territory of Afghanistan in 1979, the American administration developed the "Carter doctrine" (by the name of the then acting president). It included several measures of economic and political pressure on the Soviet Union and its activity in the international arena. In particular, an embargo on the supply of grain was established in the USSR, scientific, technical and cultural exchanges were declining. In 1980, most foreign countries boycotted the Olympics in Moscow.
April 1 at the G20 summit in Londonthe first personal meeting between Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and US President Barack Obama. The leaders of the countries exchanged views on the issues of the international and bilateral agendas, as well as determined the timetable and priority areas for cooperation for the forthcoming period. As a result of the meeting, the presidents made joint statements concerning the general framework of Russian-American relations and negotiations on further reduction of strategic offensive arms.