Cow of the Schwitz breed: characteristics, price, reviews
A cow of Schwick breed refers to animals withuniversal productivity. They are suitable for both meat production and milk production. The universality of the breed makes it possible to breed animals of meat-milk, milk-meat or dairy direction. All three types allow to receive high quality products from animals.
The brown Swiss breed of cows was bred in the mountaincanton Schwyz, in Switzerland. The source material was local aboriginal short-horned cattle. By careful and very long selection for a number of economic features, a modern Schwick breed was obtained.
Initially, the selection was not only for productivity,but also on the use of cows as draft force. After the mechanization of field work, all efforts of breeders were focused on obtaining universal meat and dairy cattle. Conditions for keeping and feeding animals improved. This allowed to increase their productivity several times.
A universal and highly productive breed in the nineteenth century became widespread not only in Europe but also in America.
Each natural and economic zone postponed itsimprint on the animal Schwitz breed. In different countries, specific tasks were set for improving the livestock population. On the American continent, they breed dairy sluts. One cow of the Schwitz breed of American breeding on average gives 5000 kg of excellent milk per lactation, the fat content on average is 4.5%. The high productivity of the Schwitz breed allowed it to enter the top five of the best dairy breeds in the North American continent.
In Europe, the main type of cattle is dairy and meat. Depending on the specific country, there are also specific features.
- Germany, Austria - animals are small on the lower limbs.
- France, Italy - large cattle, has a large live weight, is characterized by high yield and excellent fattening qualities.
In Russia, bred meat and dairy animalsdirections. The productivity of livestock is high: the weight of cows is 700 kg (this is an average figure), bulls - up to 1000 kg. With intensive fattening by the eighteen months, bull calves gain live weight of 500 kg, meat yield is 60%. Cows of meat and milk reach 4000 kg of milk with a fat content of 3.8%.
The cow of the Schwitz breed looks like this:
- trunk slightly stretched, oblique length - up to 170 cm, height at withers - up to 135 cm;
- bone structure strong;
- neck slightly shortened, muscular;
- the forehead is wide, the head is short, the horns of a dark color;
- back and waist even;
- feet correctly placed, strong, girth of the pastern - up to 20 cm;
- The chest is deep (up to 70 cm) and wide (up to 46 cm), with a well-developed bosom;
- udder of cup-shaped form with cylindrical nipples, udder index average 43%;
- skin tight and thin;
- short, dense hair;
- color from brown to light gray, a characteristic feature - a lighter hairline along the upper line of the trunk.
Animals of different types of productivity may havesome differences in appearance. In milky-meat cows, the body is more elongated, it has angular forms, the musculature is poorly developed. Meat-milk type is characterized by the proportionality of the addition and perfectly developed musculature.
Representatives of this breed steadfastly pass oninheritance of their economically useful signs. When breeding Kostroma, brown Carpathian, Lebedin, Alataus, Caucasian browns, the Schwick breed of cows was used. Characteristics of the productivity of the Swiss (average):
- nada - 3500 kg;
- fat content - 3,7%;
- the milk yield rate is 1.2 kg per minute;
- protein content - 3.4%;
- live weight of the bull - 900 kg;
- live weight of cow - 600 kg;
- at birth the weight of calves is 35 kg;
- increase in live weight per day - up to 1 kg;
- the weight of the young at the age of twelve months is 250 kg;
- the weight of the young at the age of eighteen is 350 kg;
- slaughter yield - 55%.
The indicators of productivity, depending on the type of animals, are somewhat different.
1. Milk and meat:
- nada - 5000 kg, can be up to 12000 kg;
- the weight of adult cows is 550 kg;
- The weight of adult bulls is 900 kg.
2. Meat and milk:
- nada - 4000 kg, individual cows give milk yields up to 10,000 kg;
- weight of adult cows - 800 kg;
- The weight of adult bulls is 1100 kg.
Advantages and disadvantages
While scientists-breeders have not deduced the idealbreed of cattle. Any of them has its advantages and disadvantages, the Schwitz breed of cows is no exception. Pros and cons are and she. Feedback from those who have dealt with such cows, clearly identify them.
- They are resistant to diseases and have good health;
- animals are characterized by early maturity;
- have a calm character;
- perfectly adapt to different climatic conditions;
- in animals reproductive functions are well developed.
Steady transfer of their productive qualities to the offspring allows today to use these animals for breeding new breeds of cows.
Along with good productive and economicindicators have their own shortcomings. One of the main reasons is the fact that the cow of the Schwitz breed is very demanding on the conditions of detention. Not the last place and feeding animals.
As a significant drawback can be considered anda large percentage of cows that have an irregular shape of the udder, a close nipple setting, which does not allow the use of machine milking. In addition, there are certain difficulties in the mechanized milking of cows due to the very low rate of milk yield. The average for the breed, this index varies between 1.1-1.3 kg per minute.
Plasticity of the rock allows to improveanimals, increasing their productivity. Efforts of breeders are aimed at increasing the speed of milk yield, it is necessary to bring it to at least 2 liters per minute. In addition, the selection of cows, persistently transferring the correct form of the udder, continues.
Reviews indicate that for a private farmsteada very promising Schwick breed of cows. Price for a heifer can reach 1000 dollars. But high productivity and guaranteed receipt of an offspring quickly recoup the invested funds. Manual milking does not take into account some possible udder defects.
According to the owners of cows, the taste and color of the milk are excellent. It produces excellent cheeses. The animals themselves are intelligent and calm.
High nada (along with the prospect of obtaining meat in a relatively short period of time) makes it possible for Schwitz cows to withstand competition with other breeds.