Angina: what is it?
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The word "angina" is in many people's hearing,but not everyone has a clear idea of this disease. Angina: what is it? This is one of the forms of coronary heart disease that occurs against the background of atherosclerosis and insufficient enrichment of the heart muscle with oxygen. Often angina is called a "chest toad" because of attacks of shortness of breath and pain in the heart.
Types of angina pectoris
Depending on the duration and nature of the course, angina is divided into 2 types:
- angina pectoris or stable angina. An attack occurs because of an excessive physical or emotional cardiac load. In turn, it is divided into 4 classes according to the severity of the course and the degree of physical activity of the patient. Typically, such an attack occurs within 1-5 minutes after a decrease in the load or after taking nitroglycerin. In the absence of treatment, stable angina leads to the progression of atherosclerosis and the occurrence of more frequent seizures;
- spontaneous or unstable angina. What is it? For this type of disease are characterized by more prolonged and acute attacks, which can lead to myocardial infarction. Angina pectoris is unpredictable and appears regardless of physical exertion, even at rest. The effect of taking nitroglycerin is less pronounced.
Symptoms of stenocardia
Angina is associated with a number of symptoms. First of all, it is:
- Pain syndrome. How does the heart ache with angina? Pain arises behind the chest and can give to the left shoulder, arm and even jaw. Sometimes it hurts in the left side and under the scapula. The pain has a sharp burning or pressing character and forces the patient to stop any movement. Most often, pain occurs after physical exertion, overeating or emotional shaking (both positive and negative). There are cases of a painful attack during sleep, since with a horizontal position of the body, the load on the heart increases. Often the pain syndrome is accompanied by a feeling of fear and anxiety.
- Dyspnea. Along with pain syndrome with angina pectoris may be a state of suffocation. This is due to changes in the contractility of the heart and lack of oxygen. In this case, a deeper breath only increases pain in the heart.
- Violation of the heart rate. Some patients during an attack of angina complain of increased heart rate, pulsation of the vessels of the neck or "heart failure". These symptoms are explained by a violation of the sinus node.
- Deviations of blood pressure. Arterial pressure can rise abruptly, or, conversely, fall below the norm.
A detailed description of all the syndromes present will help the doctor determine the severity of the illness and prescribe treatment.
Causes of angina pectoris
Provoke the development and further progression of angina pectoris can a number of factors, including those that directly depend on the person and exclude the possibility of influencing them.
These are factors that can not be influenced by a person. These include
- age. If earlier it was believed that the first signs of angina appear after 50 years, now there is a significant decrease in the age threshold;
- floor. At a young age, the probability of developing angina pectoris is higher in men than in women. But after the onset of menopause in the body of a woman, the level of estrogen protecting the coronary arteries and heart decreases, and the chances of the disease appearing in men and women are balanced;
- heredity. A regularity is observed between the presence in the patients of the next of kin (predominantly in the male line) with a similar diagnosis and the possibility of developing angina pectoris;
- previous or chronic diseases (heart disease, myocardial infarction, tachycardia).
These are the factors, the timely elimination of which,can slow or eliminate the development of angina pectoris: overweight, smoking, diabetes, persistent stress, hypodynamia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome.
Than to treat a stenocardia
The method of treatment of angina is determined by the cardiologist individually on the basis of the performed examination and analysis of the symptoms.
Drug therapy is aimed at improving the prognosis of the disease and involves the use of the following drugs:
- antiplatelet (acetylsalicylic acid) - reduce the risk of blood clots in the early stages;
- beta-blockers (bisoprolol) - block the negative impact of stress, reduce the need for myocardium in oxygen;
- nitrates (nitroglycerin) - provide expansion of veins, reducing stress on the heart;
- calcium antagonists (diltiazem) - reduce the amount of oxygen necessary for the myocardium.
In the absence of the results of medicationtreatment, as well as extensive coronary artery disease, coronary angioplasty is performed. This method improves the contractility of the heart muscle and eliminates angina attacks.
When narrowing the vessel resulting from atherosclerosis, aorto-coronary bypass surgery is advisable. The method provides blood supply to the myocardium due to a shunt below the level of constriction.